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Symbionticism and the origin of species

, : Symbionticism and the origin of species. Symbionticism and the origin of species 171 p 2 fig

Staining reactions do not indicate any fundamental differences between bacteria and mitochondria. Fragility of mitochondria is not a constant character but varies with age of organism from which the mitochondria are taken. The author claims that mitochondria can be cultivated and when so cultured differ in no essential way from bacteria. Golgi bodies appear to be related to mitochondria. Mitochondria may elaborate secretion or be trans-formed into it; they exhibit a pleomorphism similar to that found in some bacteria. Microorganism symbionts such as algae in sponges and hydroids, "bacte-roids" in worms and insects, and yeasts in both plants and animals, are discussed. Luminosity in many organisms is due to symbiotic bacteria. Reaction of host organism to symbionts may be morphological, physiological, or both. Tumor formation in both plants and animals shows an imperfect adaptation of host and parasite. Disease production by microorganisms represents imperfect symbionticism. Modified cells or cell groups containing microorganisms are found in many systematic groups of both plants and animals. It is reasonable to suppose that the symbionts were present before the special cell containers were evolved. Modification of species characters by means of symbionts can be observed in some groups. Plastids may have arisen from symbionts. The evolution of one-celled to many-celled organisms may have come about by fusion of single cells. In course of their normal life history bacteria may fuse to form rosettes. These larger cell groups may have again fused with symbionts, thus building a complex from a simple organism.


DOI: 10.1001/jama.1927.02680460059034

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