geoscience.net logo
+ Resolve Article
+ Follow Us
Follow on FacebookFollow on Facebook
Follow on TwitterFollow on Twitter

+ Translate
+ Subscribe to Site Feed
GeoScience Most Shared ContentMost Shared Content

The definition and use of mixing zones


, : The definition and use of mixing zones. Environmental Science & Technology 16(9): 518a-521a

Our outside world changes continuously, for example, when driving through traffic. An important question is how our brain deals with this constant barrage of rapidly changing sensory input and flexibly selects only newly goal-relevant information for further capacity-limited processing in working memory. The challenge our brain faces is experimentally captured by the attentional blink (AB): an impairment in detecting the second of two target stimuli presented in close temporal proximity among distracters. Many theories have been proposed to explain this deficit in processing goal-relevant information, with some attributing the AB to capacity limitations related to encoding of the first target and others assigning a critical role to on-line selection mechanisms that control access to working memory. The current study examined the role of striatal dopamine in the AB, given its known role in regulating the contents of working memory. Specifically, participants performed an AB task and their basal level of dopamine D2-like receptor binding was measured using PET and [F-18]fallypride. As predicted, individual differences analyses showed that greater D2-like receptor binding in the striatum was associated with a larger AB, implicating striatal dopamine and mechanisms that control access to working memory in the AB. Specifically, we propose that striatal dopamine may determine the AB by regulating the threshold for working memory updating, providing a testable physiological basis for this deficit in gating rapidly changing visual information. A challenge for current models of the AB lies in connecting more directly to these neurobiological data.

US$19.90

PMID: 22663280

DOI: 10.1021/es00103a725


Other references

Liu, X.; Lee, D-Jong., 2014: Thermodynamic parameters for adsorption equilibrium of heavy metals and dyes from wastewaters. This meta-analysis evaluates adsorption studies that report thermodynamic parameters for heavy metals and dyes from wastewaters. The adsorbents were derived from agricultural waste, industrial wastes, inorganic particulates, or some natural produc...

Maurer, K.; Schäfer, E.; Leitner, H., 1981: The effect of rarefaction and condensation tone pips on early auditory evoked potentials (EAEP). Tone pips of suprathreshold intensity were used to elicit 7 potentials in the nanovolt range. The acoustic nerve response (I) and 4 brainstem potentials (II-V) were studied in 8 normal listeners in regard to varying acoustic polarity (rarefaction...

Dorenkamp, B., 1993: Tooth diseases in cats. Classification and treatment. Classification of tooth diseases in cats into 4 stages, according to depth of penetration of the lesion, is described. Therapy and a supportive homeopathic treatment are also described.

Maluenda, F.; León, J.; Csendes, A.; Burdiles, P.; Giordano, J.; Molina, M., 2014: Single-incision laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy: initial experience in 20 patients and 2-year follow-up. The transumbilical route began being clinically feasible with or without unique access devices. The setting for this study was a private practice at Clínica Las Condes, Santiago, Chile. The objective was to describe our experience performing a la...

Chigot J.P.; Langlois P.; Menegaux F.; Maisani E.; Cheron N.; Piette J.C.; Godeau P., 1989: Abdominal tuberculosis and surgery. Semaine des Hopitaux 65(28-29): 1755-1760

Sabarwal, P.K.; Ganguli, N.C., 1977: The influence of additives and treatments on rennet action on casein micelles. The primary phase of rennet action on micellar and acid caseins (as measured by the release of bound sialic acid) was not influenced by the addition of various milk constituents and dissociating agents, with the exception of Ca and phosphate which...

Takashima, N.; Yazawa, S.; Ishihara, A.; Sugimoto, S-ichiro.; Shiomi, K.; Hiromatsu, K.; Nakazato, M., 2008: Fulminant strongyloidiasis successfully treated by subcutaneous ivermectin: an autopsy case. We report a 49-year-old man who was a human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) carrier, born in Okinawa prefecture where both strongyloidiasis and HTLV-1 are endemic. He presented with fever, headache and urinary retention. On the basis of CSF...

Bowman, C.J.; Barlow, N.J.; Turner, K.J.; Wallace, D.G.; Foster, P.M.D., 2003: Effects of in utero exposure to finasteride on androgen-dependent reproductive development in the male rat. Finasteride is a specific inhibitor of type II 5alpha-reductase, the enzyme that converts testosterone (T) to the more potent androgen receptor agonist dihydrotestosterone (DHT). In utero exposure to androgen receptor antagonists and T biosynthesi...

Anonymous, 1992: World phosphoric acid trade. In 1991, merchant grade phosphoric acid trade volumes increased by ~200 000 tonnes P2O5 from 1990 levels to slightly over 2.8 million tonnes P2O5 as the recovery in acid shipments to India and higher deliveries to a number of emerging markets more...

Woodward, A.S., 1899: Note on some Cretaceous Clupeoid Fishes with pectinated scales (Ctenothrissa and Pseudoberyx). Annals of Natural History, 7(iii): 489-492