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A review of radioactive waste disposal to the ground at Hanford


, : A review of radioactive waste disposal to the ground at Hanford. 2(Pages 345-363 1960

The disposal of radioactive wastes to the ground from the Hanford [Washington] separations plants is summarized; volumes of wastes and contained curies discharged to swamps, trenches, and cribs are presented. Significant literature on ion-exchange studies using Hanford soils is reviewed. A field experiment with a model crib is described; preliminary findings indicate that spreading a waste solution below a disposal facility may be of greater benefit in disposal operations than previously assumed. Further studies with the calcite-phosphate reaction are reported; significant variables which affect Sr (super 2+) removal are calcite surface area, pH of the influent, flow rate, temperature, and phosphate ion concentration. Bone-seeking radioisotopes are also removed from F (super -) solutions when contact is made with calcite. The zeolite clinoptilolite shows high selectivity for Cs (super +) even in the presence of increased Na (super +) concentration. The effect of the large-scale ground disposal operation at Hanford is described by means of a map and geological cross sections showing areas and volumes of ground and ground-water contamination.

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