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Atrial natriuretic factor and hypertension. A review and metaanalysis


, : Atrial natriuretic factor and hypertension. A review and metaanalysis. American Journal of Hypertension 4(10 Pt 1): 850-865

Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) is a recently discovered, volume responsive hormone with multiple potent antihypertensive actions. This article reviews data supporting hypothetical associations between ANF and essential hypertension, examines reports of plasma ANF concentrations in hypertension, discusses the efficacy of ANF and its analogs in the treatment of hypertension, and reviews future issues in ANF research. ANF has been shown to elicit vasodilatation, suppress plasma renin activity, inhibit the synthesis and release of aldosterone, antagonize sympathetically-mediated release of norepinephrine, and promote diuresis and natriuresis. A metaanalysis of plasma ANF concentrations reported in normal and hypertensive subjects reveals a 5 +/- 19 pg/mL (pooled, weighted mean and standard deviation) higher ANF level in age-matched, untreated hypertensives without evidence of end-organ damage. This difference may be inappropriately low given the increase in atrial filling pressures found in hypertension. Low doses of ANF elicit greater reductions in blood pressure in hypertensive subjects than in normals. Recently, inhibitors of the ANF-degrading enzyme, neutral endopeptidase, and of the ANF "clearance" receptor have enhanced the antihypertensive actions of endogenous or exogenously administered ANF. Human studies are currently in progress testing the antihypertensive efficacy of orally administered neutral endopeptidase inhibitors. The discovery of ANF has led to the elucidation of a family of natriuretic peptides from brain, heart, and kidney, and promises to enlarge our understanding of volume regulation in normal and pathophysiological states. The possibility that essential hypertension is associated with inappropriately low plasma ANF levels or altered responsiveness to ANF may offer new insights into the pathogenesis and treatment of hypertension.

US$19.90

PMID: 1836133

DOI: 10.1093/ajh/4.10.850


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