geoscience.net logo
+ Resolve Article
+ Follow Us
Follow on FacebookFollow on Facebook
Follow on TwitterFollow on Twitter

+ Translate
+ Subscribe to Site Feed
GeoScience Most Shared ContentMost Shared Content

Building heave due to expansive sulfide minerals in shale


, : Building heave due to expansive sulfide minerals in shale. Abstracts with Programs - Geological Society of America 31(7): 458-459

Expansion of shales and over-consolidated clays due to the water absorbing properties of their contained clay minerals results in an annual cost for foundation repairs in the United States in excess of two billion dollars. Thus, engineering geologists and geotechnical engineers are very aware of this problem. However, knowledge of shales expanding due to oxidation of the contained sulfide minerals is much less widespread. Little research has been done and there is a paucity of literature on this subject. Two areas of reported problems in the United States are Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (Pennsylvanian age shales) and Cleveland, Ohio (Devonian shales). Damage has occurred in Ontario, Canada and Wales from Ordovician shales, and elsewhere in Great Britain from Carboniferous shales. Many of these shales, although not all, are dark in color. The sulfide minerals are often microscopic in size. Iron sulfide contents of the expansive shales usually exceed one percent by weight. However, damage is reported for sulfide contents as low as 0.1 percent. When identified in the planning stage of a project, the state of practice is to avoid the expansive horizons by setting building levels below, or well above, the potentially expansive materials or to remove them by excavation. If this cannot be done and the building owner recognizes there is some risk of heave, the expansive shales are sealed with concrete or bitumastic materials to attempt to prevent oxidation. Research is needed to relate potential heave and uplift pressures to the thickness, sulfide content, and size of the sulfide minerals. Since autotrophic bacteria appear to be involved in the weathering of the sulfide minerals, the use of chemicals to provide conditions unsuitable for the bacteria needs to be studied.

US$29.90


Other references

Kratochvil, J., 1941: Duo eximia Neuroptura de regione Mohelno Moraviae.. Entomologicke Listy Brno, 4: 19-23

Tsuchiya, N.; Fukuda, H.; Sugimura, T.; Nagao, M.; Nakagama, H., 2001: Molecular characterization and cDNA cloning of a minisatellite Pc-1 binding protein, MNBP-F. Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 42: 864, March

Nasemann, T., 1958: Light and electron optic studies on the morphology of molluscum contagiosum virus and its inclusion bodies as well as a contribution to the clinical picture, serology, histopathology and pathogenesis of molluscum contagiosum. VI. Enzymatic-morphological analysis of molluscum contagiosum virus as well as its place in the system of microorganisms. Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete 9(3): 113-120

Kiwerski, J.; Makowski, J.; Michalowska-Mrozek, B., 1974: Neurologic syndromes in traumatic lesions of the cervical spinal cord. Chirurgia Narzadow Ruchu i Ortopedia Polska 39(4): 421-425

Jang, Y.Jin.; Won, J.Hoon.; Back, M.Jung.; Fu, Z.; Jang, J.Min.; Ha, H.Chan.; Hong, S.; Chang, M.; Kim, D.Kyong., 2015: Paraquat Induces Apoptosis through a Mitochondria-Dependent Pathway in RAW264.7 Cells. Paraquat dichloride (N,N-dimethyl-4-4'-bipiridinium, PQ) is an extremely toxic chemical that is widely used in herbicides. PQ generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and causes multiple organ failure. In particular, PQ has been reported to be...

Hamada, F.; Ohzono, S.; Yamada, S.; Baba, Y.; Tokuda, Y.; Yamashita, W.; Nakashima, A.; Harada, R.; Arima, T.; Morita, T., 1990: A case of acute potassium bromate intoxication. We experienced a case of a 44 year old man who had ingested potassium bromate solution for suicide attempt. Soon after the ingestion, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhea developed in him. Several hours later, he began to complain of audi...

Funder, J.; Wieth, J.O.to, 1966: Chloride and hydrogen ion distribution human red cells and plasma. Distribution of Cl-and H+ between human red cells and plasma has been studied after variations of plasma pH (induced both by changing pCO2 and changing bicarbonate concentration). The distributionratloof chloride Cl-cell/Cl-plasma = r(C1-), and of...

van der Hoek D.; van der Schaaf S., 1988: The influence of water level, management and groundwater quality on vegetation development in a small nature reserve in the southern Gelderse Vallei (The Netherlands). Changes in vegetation in a small wetland nature reserve in the Netherlands are related to changes in regional hydrological conditions. The original vegetation is a seepage dependent Cirsio Molinietum. The reasons why previous preservation measures...

Saraiya, A.B.; Tomar, S.S.; Sharma, S.K., 2005: Effect of crop residue and tillage practices on physico-chemical properties and yield of wheat grown after rice in Vertisols. This study, conducted during rabi 2001/02 in Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, India, aimed to develop management practices that could improve the soil physical and chemical properties and increase the productivity of crops in a rice-wheat cropping system...

Piek, T.; Veldsema Currie, R.D.; Spanjer, W.; Mantel, P., 1983: Acetylcholine and an unidentified, muscle-contracting factor in the venom of the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris L. Extracts of venom reservoirs as well as dilutions of venom droplets collected from the tip of the sting of Bombus terrestris were tested for biological activity on the isolated guinea-pig ileum, the frog rectus abdominis, and the rat phrenic nerve...