+ Resolve Article
+ Follow Us
Follow on FacebookFollow on Facebook
Follow on TwitterFollow on Twitter

+ Translate
+ Subscribe to Site Feed
GeoScience Most Shared ContentMost Shared Content

Essential roles for animal models in understanding human toxicities

, : Essential roles for animal models in understanding human toxicities. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 15(1): 7-11

Strong cases have been made that there are no viable alternatives to the use of animal models in toxicology and, indeed, that virtually every major advance in the biomedical sciences and technologies stems in whole or in part from research performed with animals. Basic to these assertions is the assumption that information gained from such research can be extrapolated to "analogous" human conditions. Analogies may involve modeling at levels of bio-organization from molecules to the behaviour of the total, integrated organism: toxicity of exposure to a chemical varies with the structure(s) or function(s) modeled. Important decisions by regulators are always influenced by trade-offs between biological limitations and social cost-benefits, much information about the former coming from research on animals. This places great importance on the validities of extrapolations from the animal data, which may be expected to satisfy a hierarchy of five criteria. These range from evidence of superficial similarity ("face validity") to demonstration that knowledge obtained from the model is related to predictable outcomes in humans ("predictive validity"). Given the nature of the problems to be solved, which drastically limits the use of humans as subjects, animal models play essential roles in the biomedical sciences and technologies provided that due precautions are taken in creating models and in generalizing from them.


PMID: 2052201

DOI: 10.1016/s0149-7634(05)80085-5

Other references

Torp, M.J., 1965: Physical Therapy In South Korea: An International Achievement. Physical Therapy 45: 153-157

Ting, J.Yuk.Sang., 2007: Acute pancreatitis related to therapeutic dosing with colchicine: a case report. Colchicine is used in the treatment and prophylaxis of gout. It possesses a narrow therapeutic window, frequently resulting in dose-limiting gastrointestinal side-effects such as diarrhoea and emesis. As colchicine is a cellular anti-mitotic agent...

Glukhov, G.; Mordovina, O., 1953: Buterfat content of milk of cows in Saratov province. The average butterfat content, as determined in the years 1950 and 1951 in the milk of 1, 317 cows kept in different regions of Saratov province, was: 3.92-4.27 per cent for Simmental cows, 4.11 per cent for Bestuzhev cows and 3.5-3.63 per cent fo...

Shao, D.; Zhang, Y-Fan.; Zhan, Y.; Chen, X-Yan.; Zhong, D-Fang., 2016: Troubleshooting of bioinequivalence of compound valsartan tablets. The study aims to evaluate the bioequivalence of valsartan hydrochlorothiazide tablets, and to investigate the potential cause of bioinequivalence. This was a single-center study with an open, randomized double-way crossover design. Test and refer...

Barker, K.S.; Donald, R.; Litton, A.L.; Ross, T.M.; Lawton, A.R.; Rollins Smith, L.A., 1993: Costimulation of B cell differentiation by 8-mercaptoguanosine and anti-IgM antibodies IL-6 dependence. Journal of Immunology 150(8 PART 2): 183A

Budowle, B.; Smerick, J.B.; Keys, K.M.; Moretti, T.R., 1997: United States population data on the multiplex short tandem repeat loci--HUMTHO1, TPOX, and CSF1PO--and the variable number tandem repeat locus D1S80. Allele frequencies for three tetrameric short tandem repeat (STR) loci HUMTHO1, TPOX, and CSF1PO and a variable number tandem repeat locus D1S80 were determined in United States Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic sample populations. All loc...

Devappa, K.; Ramesh, S.; Ramakrishnayya, B.V., .: Mussooriephos as an alternative source of phosphorus to single superphosphate for FCV tobacco in Karnataka. Effects of 40-120 kg P/ha as Mussooriephos and single superphosphate on yield and quality of flue-cured Virginia tobacco were similar, but Mussoriephos was cheaper and beneficial for acidic soils.

Quick C.B.; Fisher R.A.; Harris H., 1972: Differentiation of the phospho gluco mutase 2 locus isozymes from those of phospho gluco mutase 1 and phospho gluco mutase 3 in terms of phospho pento mutase activity. Annals of Human Genetics 35(4): 445-454

Tsujino, K.; Tsukahara, M., 2001: Oculo-ectodermal syndrome. Ryoikibetsu Shokogun Shirizu: 344-345

Anderson, W.J.; Sterling, D.A., 1997: Posttraumatic compartment syndrome of the dorsal forearm: an unusual case. Orthopedics 20(3): 265-266