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Allorecognition in colonial tunicates: protection against predatory cell lineages?

, : Allorecognition in colonial tunicates: protection against predatory cell lineages?. Immunological Reviews 167: 69-79

The MHC molecules have been historically perceived as transplantation antigens, though it is now recognized that their primary, if not sole, role is in eliminating parasites and in surveillance and clearance of aberrant self. Indeed, pregnancy in mammals would represent the closest to a natural transplantation process that occurs in vertebrates. However, among the immediate ancestors to the vertebrates, natural intraspecific allorecognition processes are common. Among members of the colonial tunicate Botryllus schlosseri, two individuals that share a single allele of the highly polymorphic fusibility/histocompatibility (Fu/HC) locus are able to fuse with one another. Could this Fu/HC be related to the MHC such that the MHC really did have its origins as a transplantation antigen? Presently we review the genetics and biology of natural transplantation processes in colonial tunicates, comparing it with allorecognition as mediated through the vertebrate T-cell receptor, killer cell inhibitory receptor/Ly49, and MHC. Experimental approaches to determining if the molecules regulating allorecognition in tunicates have any ancestral relationship to the vertebrate MHC are discussed, as is a genomic approach to isolating novel mediators of allorecognition. We also explore the biological basis for allorecognition in colonial tunicates and recent work that highlights the costs of not maintaining a system for allorecognition.


PMID: 10319252

DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-065x.1999.tb01383.x

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