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Postoperative nausea and vomiting after neurosurgey (infratentorial and supratentorial surgery)

, : Postoperative nausea and vomiting after neurosurgey (infratentorial and supratentorial surgery). Annales Françaises d’Anesthésie et de Réanimation 23(4): 422–427

To perform a synthesis regarding postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) after neurosurgery. A Medline search was performed to identify publications about frequency, risk factors, prevention and treatment of PONV in adults and children, after neurosurgery. After neurosurgery, the estimated frequency of nausea is around 50% and around 39% for vomiting. After neurosurgery; PONV risk factors are female sex and infratentorial surgery. Children older than two years are at higher risk for PONV. To reduce baseline risk factors, it is recommended to use propofol for induction and maintenance of anaesthesia, to avoid nitrous oxide and to use hydration (20 ml/kg of crystalloids before induction). For PONV prophylaxis, ondansetron and droperidol may be given, using one drug for a moderate risk patient and both drugs for a high-risk patient. Droperidol should not be used in children as a first choice therapy because of an increased risk of extrapyramidal symptoms. Dexamethasone has not been evaluated after neurosurgery. Metoclopramide has no clinically relevant effect for PONV. Especially in neurosurgery, after occurrence of PONV, it is recommended to rule out a possible triggering factor that should need specific treatment. A global management of PONV is proposed, based on the administration of the same drugs given at half the doses used for prophylaxis.


PMID: 15120791

DOI: 10.1016/j.annfar.2004.01.005

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