+ Resolve Article
+ Follow Us
Follow on FacebookFollow on Facebook
Follow on TwitterFollow on Twitter

+ Translate
+ Subscribe to Site Feed
GeoScience Most Shared ContentMost Shared Content

Drinking speed using a valved Pat Saunders straw, wide bore straw and a narrow bore straw in school-age children

, : Drinking speed using a valved Pat Saunders straw, wide bore straw and a narrow bore straw in school-age children. International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare 9(4): 435-439

To understand the nature of straw drinking in relation to a group of children with specific eating and drinking difficulties, it is first necessary to ascertain the range of normal function. Straw drinking is often recommended as a method that can support children with eating and drinking difficulties.Method This study looked at straw drinking performance in a normal population of 125 children aged between 6 and 11 years of age. Three types of straws were used: a valved Pat Saunders straw, a wide bore straw and a narrow bore straw. Children drank 4 mL of water for each straw tested. Children increased their speed of intake significantly for all straw types as they matured. Drinking speed was quickest for the wide bore straw followed by the narrow bore and slowest for the valved Pat Saunders straw. This was supported by qualitative feedback from the children with most finding the wide bore straw the easiest one to use and the valved Pat Saunders straw the hardest. There were significant differences in speed of flow between the valved Pat Saunders straw and wide bore straw, between the valved Pat Saunders straw and the narrow bore straw and between the wide bore straw and the narrow bore straw. There were no significant differences between straw flow or straw type and gender. This normative data for straw drinking in a paediatric population can be used to develop baseline measures for clinical assessment.


PMID: 22093392

DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-1609.2011.00241.x

Other references

Libois, R.; Hallet, C., 1996: The European otter in Belgium today conservation problems Situation actuelle de la loutre, Lutra lutra, en Belgique et problematique de sa conservation. Cahiers d'Ethologie, 152-3-4: 157-168

Muehlberger W.R., 1974: Structural history of southeastern Mare Serenitatis and adjacent highlands. 1: 101-110 1974

Khanna, A.K.; Khanna, A.; Asthana, A.K.; Misra, M.K., 1985: Mitomycin C extravasation ulcers. In a four-year period, eight patients with mitomycin C extravasation ulcers were encountered. Mitomycin C extravasation produces a painful indolent ulcer that does not have any tendency to heal. If extravasation of the drug is recognized, infusion...

Kolomeyevskaya, N.; Blazo, M.; Van den Veyver, I.; Strehlow, S.; Aagaard-Tillery, K.M., 2010: Pheochromocytoma and Von Hippel-Lindau in pregnancy. Pheochromocytoma is an infrequent but well-acknowledged primary cause of malignant hypertension in pregnancy. Although the majority of pheochromocytomas are sporadic, those that present as bilateral or multifocal tumors may be a manifestation of a...

Stark, T.; Wollmann, N.; Wenker, K.; Lösch, S.; Glabasnia, A.; Hofmann, T., 2010: Matrix-calibrated LC-MS/MS quantitation and sensory evaluation of oak Ellagitannins and their transformation products in red wines. Aimed at investigating the concentrations and taste contribution of the oak-derived ellagitannins castalagin and vescalagin as well as their transformation products acutissimin A/B, epiacutissimin A/B, and beta-1-O-ethylvescalagin in red wine, a h...

Curtis, B.Leianne., 2006: Always a beginner. Midwifery Today With International Midwife: 18-18

Kandaourov I.I. (Kandauro I.I.; Ouvarov L.A. (Uvarov L.A., 1974: Stresses in models simulating thrustless jointed rock masses. Proceedings of the Congress of the International Society for Rock Mechanics 3, Vol

Chen, H-Ru.; Chen, Y-Chung.; Chang, T-Chang.; Chang, K-Chang.; Tsai, T-Ming.; Chu, T-Jian.; Shih, C-Cheng.; Chuang, N-Chuan.; Wang, K-Yuan., 2014: Surface scattering mechanisms of tantalum nitride thin film resistor. In this letter, we utilize an electrical analysis method to develop a TaN thin film resistor with a stricter spec and near-zero temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) for car-used electronic applications. Simultaneously, we also propose a phy...

Horácek, J.; Pospísil, L., 1981: Leishmania tropica in Czechoslovakia. Case report. Leishmania major, man who had lived and worked in endemic area of Iraq, case review, clinical review of diagnostic pathology and therapy: Brno, Czechoslovakia

Huang, Y.L.; Ebner, K.E., 1969: Inhibition of phosphoglucomutase by galactose 1-6-diphosphate. Experientia 25(9): 917-918