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Glucagon regulates ACC activity in adipocytes through the CAMKKbeta/AMPK pathway


, : Glucagon regulates ACC activity in adipocytes through the CAMKKbeta/AMPK pathway.

Glucagon is important for regulating lipid metabolism in part through its inhibition of fatty acid synthesis in adipocytes. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1) is the rate-limiting enzyme for fatty acid synthesis. Glucagon has been proposed to activate cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), which phosphorylates ACC1 to attenuate the lipogenic activity of ACCBecause AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) also inhibits fatty acid synthesis by phosphorylation of ACC1, we examined the involvement of AMPK and its upstream kinase in the glucagon-elicited signaling in adipocytes in vitro and in vivo. LC-MS-MS analysis suggested that ACC1 was phosphorylated only at Ser79, an AMPK-specific site, in glucagon-treated adipocytes. Pharmacological inhibitors and siRNA knockdown of AMPK or PKA in adipocytes demonstrate that glucagon regulates ACC1 and ACC2 activity through AMPK but not PKA. By using Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-β knockout (CaMKKβ–/–) mice and cultured adipocytes, we further show that glucagon activates the CaMKKβ/AMPK/ACC cascade. Additionally, fasting increases the phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC in CaMKKβ+/+ but not CaMKKβ–/– mice. These results indicate that CaMKKβ/AMPK signaling is an important molecular component in regulating lipid metabolism in adipocytes responding to glucagon and could be a therapeutic target for the dysregulation of energy storage.

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