+ Resolve Article
+ Follow Us
Follow on FacebookFollow on Facebook
Follow on TwitterFollow on Twitter

+ Translate
+ Subscribe to Site Feed
GeoScience Most Shared ContentMost Shared Content

Ixodes ricinus Gut-associated Cathepsin D IrCD1

, : Ixodes ricinus Gut-associated Cathepsin D IrCD1.

To identify the gut-associated tick aspartic hemoglobinase, this work focuses on the functional diversity of multiple Ixodes ricinus cathepsin D forms (IrCDs). Out of three encoding genes representing Ixodes scapularis genome paralogs, IrCD1 is the most distinct enzyme with a shortened propeptide region and a unique pattern of predicted post-translational modifications. IrCD1 gene transcription is induced by tick feeding and is restricted to the gut tissue. The hemoglobinolytic role of IrCD1 was further supported by immunolocalization of IrCD1 in the vesicles of tick gut cells. Properties of recombinantly expressed rIrCD1 are consistent with the endo-lysosomal environment because the zymogen is autoactivated and remains optimally active in acidic conditions. Hemoglobin cleavage pattern of rIrCD1 is identical to that produced by the native enzyme. The preference for hydrophobic residues at the P1 and P1? position was confirmed by screening a novel synthetic tetradecapeptidyl substrate library. Outside the S1-S1? regions, rIrCD1 tolerates most amino acids but displays a preference for tyrosine at P3 and alanine at P2?. Further analysis of the cleavage site location within the peptide substrate indicated that IrCD1 is a true endopeptidase. The role in hemoglobinolysis was verified with RNAi knockdown of IrCD1 that decreased gut extract cathepsin D activity by >9%. IrCD1 was newly characterized as a unique hemoglobinolytic cathepsin D contributing to the complex intestinal proteolytic network of mainly cysteine peptidases in ticks.


Other references

Hulvey, J.T.; Keats, T., 1969: Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia. A contribution to the problem of spinal involvement. American Journal of Roentgenology, Radium Therapy, and Nuclear Medicine 106(1): 170-177

Simson, L.R.; Oberman, H.A.; Penner, J.A.; Lien, D.M.; Warner, C.L., 1966: A method for preparing plasma factor VIII concentrate. A simple freeze-thaw cryo-globulin method for preparing plasma factor-VIII concentrate is described. Plasma for processing was obtained by plasmapheresis from a small group of donors of blood group-AB who had high normal levels of factor-VIII. The...

Noervang Aksel, 1936: Nogle Iagttagelser over Stroe Bjerges Opbygning. Stratigraphic relations of moraine, Gravel, sand, and varved clay deposits of Stroe mountain, Denmark.

Wennberg, L.; Groth, C.G.; Tibell, A.; Zhu, S.; Liu, J.; Rafael, E.; Söderlund, J.; Biberfeld, P.; Morris, R.E.; Karlsson-Parra, A.; Korsgren, O., 1997: Triple drug treatment with cyclosporine, leflunomide and mycophenolate mofetil prevents rejection of pig islets transplanted into rats and primates. Transplantation Proceedings 29(5): 2498-2498

Anonymous, 2003: Struggling to Survive. National Hog Farmer 48(5): , 12-14

Carroll, D.P., 1992: Patients undergoing chemotherapy have special treatment needs. Rdh 12(2): 40, 42-40, 42

Leatherland, J.; Nuti, R., 1981: Effects of bovine growth hormone on plasma FFA concentrations and liver, muscle and carcass lipid content in rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri Richardson. Journal of fish biology 19(5): 487-498

Ichikawa A.; Dainaka J., 1986: Effect of environmental substances on mast cell function in inflammation. Eisei Kagaku 32(4): 242-257

Mukherjea, D.; Rybak, L.P., 2011: Pharmacogenomics of cisplatin-induced ototoxicity. Cisplatin ototoxicity affects different individuals in a widely variable manner. These variations are likely to be explained by genetic differences among those affected. It would be highly advantageous to identify genetic variants that predispose...

Thong, A.E.; Shikanov, S.; Katz, M.H.; Gofrit, O.N.; Eggener, S.; Zagaja, G.P.; Shalhav, A.L.; Zorn, K.C., 2008: A single microfocus (5% or less) of Gleason 6 prostate cancer at biopsy--can we predict adverse pathological outcomes?. Patients with Gleason score 6 microfocal prostate cancer, defined as 5% or less in 1 biopsy core, are often considered to have favorable disease. Few studies have addressed clinical parameters that predict pathological upgrading or up staging at r...