geoscience.net logo
+ Resolve Article
+ Follow Us
Follow on FacebookFollow on Facebook
Follow on TwitterFollow on Twitter

+ Translate
+ Subscribe to Site Feed
GeoScience Most Shared ContentMost Shared Content

The viscous-brittle transition of crystal-bearing silicic melt Direct observation of magma rupture and healing


, : The viscous-brittle transition of crystal-bearing silicic melt Direct observation of magma rupture and healing. Geology 40(7): 611-614

Magmas may flow or break depending on their deformation rate. The transition between such viscous and brittle behavior controls the style of volcanic eruptions. While the brittle failure of silicate melts is reasonably well characterized, the effect of crystals on the viscous-brittle transition has not yet been constrained. Here we examine the effect of suspended crystals on the mechanical failure of magmas using torsion experiments performed at temperatures (6–9 °C), strain rates (1–4–1–1 s–1), and confining pressures (2–3 MPa) relevant for volcanic systems. We present a relationship that predicts the critical stress and associated strain rate at which magmas fail as a function of crystal fraction. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that the viscous to brittle transition occurs at lower stresses and strain rates when crystals are present. The fractures formed during brittle failure of crystal-bearing magma originate in the melt phase, which enables gas to escape, and hence to reduce gas overpressure. These degassing pathways heal on relatively short time scales owing to the high confining pressure at depth, highlighting the possibility that coherent lavas may actually be the healed remains of partially degassed magma parcels that have undergone many cycles of fracturing and healing.

US$19.90

DOI: 10.1130/G3914.1


Other references

Endo, K.; Hashimoto, H.; Mitsuhashi, S., 1970: Drug-resistance and R factors of Escherichia coli isolated from tuberculosis patients. Nihon Saikingaku Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Bacteriology 25(1): 11-16

Mings, R.C., 1978: The importance of more research on the impacts of tourism. Many areas of the world are involved in a search for additional means of elevating their living standards. This discussion argues that inadequate understanding of the varied impacts of tourism development has contributed to both unwarranted optimi...

Satterfield, B.A.; Stewart, A.F.; Lew, C.S.; Pickett, D.O.; Cohen, M.N.; Moore, E.A.; Luedtke, P.F.; O'Neill, K.L.; Robison, R.A., 2010: A quadruplex real-time PCR assay for rapid detection and differentiation of the Clostridium botulinum toxin genes A, B, E and F. Clostridium botulinum is the aetiological agent of botulism, a disease marked by flaccid paralysis that can progress to asphyxiation and death. This species is defined by the production of one of the botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), which are the mo...

Langnes, A., 1976: Chemotherapy of Cysticercus tenuicollis and Cysticercus pisiformis in pigs and rabbits. Eight weeks after experimental infection of 63 pigs with 5000 Taenia hydatigena eggs and 30 rabbits with 1500 T. pisiformis eggs, treatment was carried out with mebendazole (25 mg/kg for 5 days or 5 mg/kg for 14 days) or praziquantel (50 mg/kg for...

Strawn, L.M.; Mann, E.; Elliger, S.S., 1994: Inhibition of glioma cell growth by a truncated platelet-derived growth factor-b receptor. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 269: 215-22

Uhley, H.N.; Rivkin, L.M., 1965: Cardiac Slowing Induced By External Coupled Pacing. Single electrical stimuli, 70 to 150 volts 3 msec, in duration, applied to the chest of the dog and synchronized to the proper portions of the cardiac cycle, slowed the heart rate, increased left ventricular pressure, and increased the rate of ris...

Robinson, R.A., 1947: Diospyros Kaki. The uses of the fruits of D. Kaki and D. embryopteris, and of the woods of other Diospyros species, are briefly described. It is mentioned that D. Kaki can be grown out of doors in England, particularly in the south.

Asadov, Ks, 1984: Some rare trees and bushes of the Nakhichevan ASSR. Doklady Akademiia nauk Azerbaidzhanskoi SSR0(11): 83-85

Bedford, F.K.; Ashworth, A.; Enver, T.; Wiedemann, L.M., 1993: HEX: a novel homeobox gene expressed during haematopoiesis and conserved between mouse and human. We describe the cloning of a novel homeodomain-containing gene, which is highly conserved between mouse and human. The human cDNA was initially isolated from human haematopoietic tissue and denoted HEX (haematopoietically expressed homeobox). Sequ...

Ebtehaj, I.; Bonakdari, H., 2016: A support vector regression-firefly algorithm-based model for limiting velocity prediction in sewer pipes. Sediment transport without deposition is an essential consideration in the optimum design of sewer pipes. In this study, a novel method based on a combination of support vector regression (SVR) and the firefly algorithm (FFA) is proposed to predic...