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Aspectos perinatales, crecimiento y tipo de lactancia de los nacidos pequeños para su edad gestacional


, : Aspectos perinatales, crecimiento y tipo de lactancia de los nacidos pequeños para su edad gestacional. Anales de Pediatría 78(1): 14-20

El haber nacido peque o para la edad gestacional (PEG) conlleva riesgos a corto y a largo plazo. El objetivo del estudio es describir las caracter sticas perinatol gicas y socioculturales, el patr n de crecimiento y el tipo de alimentaci n de los nacidos PEG en nuestro medio durante sus primeros 6 meses de vida. Materiales y m todos Se ha evaluado durante 6 meses la antropometr a y alimentaci n en una muestra de 1.596 lactantes representativa de la poblaci n aragonesa. Las madres de los PEG (n=94) ganaron menos peso durante la gestaci n (1,5 5,8 vs 12, 5,7kg; p=,12), el embarazo dur menos (37,84 1,7 vs 39,6 1,6semanas; p<,1) y se les realizaron m s ces reas (37,2 vs 2,5%; p=,1). La talla de la madre fue menor en el grupo de PEG (1,61 ,58 vs 1,63 ,6 metros; p = ,4), pero su ndice de masa corporal fue similar. No se encontraron diferencias entre grupos en los aspectos sociales o culturales. Las madres de los PEG fumaron m s durante la gestaci n (32,3 vs 18,5%; p = ,3) (RR = 1,92; IC 95%: 1,31-3,2). Los PEG mantuvieron un menor peso y longitud durante los 6 primeros meses de vida y la ganancia ponderal mensual fue similar al resto. La prevalencia de lactancia materna fue menor en los PEG, 54,9 vs 68,2% a los 4 meses (RR=,58; IC 95%: ,38-,89). Conclusi n En los nacidos PEG confluyen una serie de caracter sticas que deben ser consideradas, ya que en conjunto confieren riesgos para la salud. Los nacidos PEG en nuestro medio no presentan un patr n de crecimiento recuperador r pido y su menor tama o persiste a los 6 meses de vida. Being born small for gestational age (SGA) has short and long term risks. The aim of this study was to describe perinatal and socio-cultural characteristics, and the pattern of growth and diet of SGA infants during their first 6 months of life. Anthropometry and diet were evaluated during six months in a representative sample of 1596 newborns the population of Aragon (Spain). Mothers of SGA (N=94) infants gained less weight during pregnancy (1.5 5.8 vs 12. 5.7kg, P=.12), gestational age at birth was lower (37.84 1.7 vs 39.6 1.6 weeks, P <.1), and the probability of cesarean delivery was higher (37.2% vs 2.5%, P =.1). The height of the mother was lower in the SGA group (1.61 .58 vs 1.63 .6 metres, P =.4), but their body mass index was similar. No differences were found between groups in social or cultural aspects. Mothers of SGA infants smoked more during pregnancy (32.3% vs 18.5%, P =.3) (RR = 1.92; 95% CI; 1.31 to 3.2). Infants born SGA remained smaller during the first 6 months of life, and the monthly weight gain was similar to the rest. In the SGA group, the prevalence of breastfeeding was lower at 4 months of age (54.9% vs 68.2%, RR = .58, 95% CI; .38 to .89). I.

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