+ Resolve Article
+ Follow Us
Follow on FacebookFollow on Facebook
Follow on TwitterFollow on Twitter

+ Translate
+ Subscribe to Site Feed
GeoScience Most Shared ContentMost Shared Content

Evidence of multiple introductions of HIV-1 subtype C in Angola

, : Evidence of multiple introductions of HIV-1 subtype C in Angola. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 12(7): 1458-1465

HIV-1 subtype C is the most prevalent group M clade in southern Africa and some eastern African countries. Subtype C is also the most frequent subtype in Angola (southwestern Africa), with an estimated prevalence of 1 2%. In order to better understand the origin of the HIV-1 subtype C strains circulating in Angola, 31 subtype C pol sequences of Angolan origin were compared with 195 subtype C pol sequences sampled in other African countries. Phylogenetic analyses reveal that the Angolan subtype C sequences were distributed in 16 different lineages that were widely dispersed among other African strains. Ten subtype C Angolan lineages were composed by only one sequence, while the remaining six clades contain between two and seven sequences. Bayesian phylogeographic analysis indicates that most Angolan clades probably originated in different southern African countries with the exception of one lineage that most likely originated in Burundi. Evolutionary analysis suggests that those Angolan subtype C clades composed by ?2 sequences were introduced into the country between the late 197s and the mid 2s. The median estimated time frame for the origin of those Angolan lineages coincides with periods of positive migration influx in Angola that were preceded by phases of negative migratory outflow. These results demonstrate that the Angolan subtype C epidemic resulted from multiple introductions of subtype C viruses mainly imported from southern African countries over the last 3years, some of which have been locally disseminated establishing several autochthonous transmission networks. This study also suggests that population mobility between Angola and southern African countries during civil war (1974 22) may have played a key role in the emergence of the Angolan subtype C epidemic. We investigate the origin of HIV-1 subtype C viruses circulating in Angola. Multiple introductions of HIV-1 subtype C were detected in Angola. Most subtype C viruses introduced in Angola originated in southern Africa. Several autochthonous networks of subtype C transmission were identified. Origin of local transmission networks coincides with periods of migration influx.


PMID: 22634597

DOI: 10.1016/j.meegid.2012.05.005

Other references

Buhler F.W., 1948: Topographical surveys. Discussion of photographic mapping and construction of maps for the Louise A. Boyd expeditions to East Greenland, 1937-38.

Burlin Y.K., 1997: Geodynamics and the conditions of oil and gas occurrence in active margins. Pages 37-45 1997

Birolini, D.; Martins, L.C.; Tullio, J.; Bastos, B.V.; Ferreira, M.C.; Ferreira, E.A.; Branco, P.D.; de Oliveira, M.R., 1967: Microcirculation: its participation in shock. Revista Da Associacao Medica Brasileira 13(9): 305-312

Hollingbery P.W.; Massey L.K., 1986: Effect of dietary caffeine and sucrose on urinary calcium excretion in adolescents. Federation Proceedings 45(3): 375

Schnebel, G.; Pailer, K., 1973: Uber die Vogelwelt in Flussniederungen derLuneberger Heide in den Monaten November und Dezember (Ergebnisse einer Vogelzahlung). Ornithologische Mitteilungen Gottingen, 251: 9-12

Dutta S.; Marks B.H., 1976: Uptake and positive inotropic effect of ouabain in the potassium de polarized guinea pig heart. Federation Proceedings 35(3): 425

Lundström, N-Göran.; Englyst, V.; Gerhardsson, L.; Jin, T.; Nordberg, G., 2006: Lung cancer development in primary smelter workers: a nested case-referent study. Objective: The objective of this study was to study the impact of work-related exposure to mainly arsenic and lead versus smoking in primary smelter workers developing lung cancer. Methods: In a cohort of 3979 primary smelter workers, 46 subjects...

Antropov, G.A.; Smirnitskiĭ, N.S., 1966: The use of the Mischuk apparatus for determining heat loss due to evaporation of perspiration. Gigiena i Sanitariia 31(1): 53-56

Ornoy, A.; Shechtman, S.; Arnon, J., 2000: The Israel Teratogen Information Service: a report of the last ten years with 20,613 calls. The Israel Teratogen Information Service (TIS) was established 10 years ago with the help of the Ministry of Health and the Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School. During these 10 years we have had 20,631 calls. We describe the results of our e...

Roberts, D.J.; Tan-Sah, V.P.; Ding, E.Y.; Smith, J.M.; Miyamoto, S., 2014: Hexokinase-II positively regulates glucose starvation-induced autophagy through TORC1 inhibition. Hexokinase-II (HK-II) catalyzes the first step of glycolysis and also functions as a protective molecule; however, its role in protective autophagy has not been determined. Results showed that inhibition of HK-II diminished, while overexpression o...