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A 53-GHz 32-bit accumulator designed for direct digital frequency synthesizer

, : A 53-GHz 32-bit accumulator designed for direct digital frequency synthesizer. Chinese Science Bulletin 57(19): 2480-2487

A 32-bit pipeline accumulator with carry ripple topology is implemented for direct digital frequency synthesizer. To increase the throughout while hold down the area and power consumption, a method to reduce the number of the pre-skewing registers is proposed. The number is reduced to 29% of a conventional pipeline accumulator. The propagation delay versus bias current of the adder circuit with different size transistors is investigated. We analyze the delay by employing the open circuit time constant method. Compared to the simulation results, the maximum error is less than 8%. A method to optimum the design of the adder based on the propagation delay is discussed. The clock traces for the 32-bit adder are heavily loaded, as there are 4 registers being connected to them. Moreover, the differential clock traces, which are much longer than the critical length, should be treated as transmission lines. Thus a clock distribution method and a termination scheme are proposed to get high quality and low skew clock signals. A multiple ?-type termination scheme is proposed to match the transmission line impedance. The 32-bit accumulator was measured to work functionally at 5.3 GHz.


DOI: 10.1007/s11434-012-5157-4

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