+ Resolve Article
+ Follow Us
Follow on FacebookFollow on Facebook
Follow on TwitterFollow on Twitter

+ Translate
+ Subscribe to Site Feed
GeoScience Most Shared ContentMost Shared Content

Cortical thinning in amphetamine-type stimulant users

, : Cortical thinning in amphetamine-type stimulant users. Neuroscience 221: 182-192

Accumulating evidence supports the hypothesis of ecstasy and amphetamine exhibiting neurotoxic properties in human recreational users. The extent and exact location of neuronal degeneration might also be associated with a specific profile of cognitive deterioration described in polydrug users. Voxel-based morphometry and cortical thickness analyses constantly gain attention for answering the question of associated neurological sequelae. We aimed to evaluate the integrity of cortical and subcortical structures in three groups that differ in the consumption of amphetamine-type stimulants. Cortical thickness, cortical grey matter volume and the shape of supposedly vulnerable subcortical structures were compared between 20 experienced users, 42 users with little exposure to these substances and 16 drug- na ve controls. Cortical thinning in experienced users compared to drug-na ve controls and low-exposure users was observed in medio-frontal regions. Effects of ecstasy and amphetamine on cortical volume were similar to those of cortical thickness, with volume reductions primarily in frontal, but also in occipital and parietal regions of low exposure and experienced users. These effects were differently lateralized for the different comparisons. The investigation of subcortical structures revealed non-significant bilateral shape differences in the hippocampi. Our data support the hypothesis that massive recreational amphetamine-type stimulant polydrug use is associated with a thinning of cortical grey matter. Disrupted neuronal integrity in frontal regions does fit well into models of addiction and the cognitive deterioration in amphetamine-type stimulant polydrug users. The exact neurotoxic mechanisms of polydrug ecstasy and amphetamine use, however, remain speculative. We investigated three groups of amphetamine and MDMA users. Data on cortical thickness, cortical volume and subcortical structures have been collected. Heavy users displayed cortical thinning and volume reduction in frontal and parietal regions. Drug na ve controls did not differ from low exposure users. Neuronal degeneration might be associated with the use of amphetamine derivates.


PMID: 22750208

DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2012.06.049

Other references

Koga, S.; Kobayashi, H.; Novick, A.C.; Toma, H.; Fairchild, R.L., 2001: Prolonged class II MHC disparate skin allograft survival by treatment with antibodies to the chemokine Mig. Transplantation Proceedings 33(1-2): 549-550

Alepa F.P.; Zvaifler N.J., 1968: Studies of anti streptolysin o in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis abstract human antibody gamma g inst deae cellulose chromatography. Arthritis & Rheumatism 11(3): 463

Wakisaka, Y.W.; Niwano, S.N.; Saito, J.S.; Niwano, H.N.; Yoshida, T.Y.; Izumi, T.I., 2003: The ventricular electrical remodelling in rat experimental autoimmune myocarditis The difference between acute inflammatory phase and dilated cardiomyopathy-like phase. European Heart Journal 24(Abstract Supplement): 285, August-September

O'Malley, P., 1999: Sanity and insanity--a personal view. Irish Medical Journal 91(5): 156, 158-156, 158

Sarno, J., 2013: Prevention and management of tumor lysis syndrome in adults with malignancy. Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS), an oncologic emergency that typically occurs after the treatment of a malignancy with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, is the result of extreme tumor cell lysis with the release of intracellular potassium, nucleic acid...

Petrenko, I.M., 2002: Qualitative indices of the work of a stack-maker for organic fertilizer. When compost is prepared by mixing manure, straw, etc., the quality of work is determined by the uniformity of mixing, degree of comminution, and the form of stacking. Studies were made on stacks prepared by a modified Russian ROU-6 machine. The r...

Cowley, Sán.C.; Hamilton, E.; Frelinger, J.A.; Su, J.; Forman, J.; Elkins, K.L., 2005: CD4-CD8- T cells control intracellular bacterial infections both in vitro and in vivo. Memory T cells, including the well-known CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, are central components of the acquired immune system and are the basis for successful vaccination. After infection, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells expand into effector cells, and then differen...

Yoon, Sung Hwa, 1993: Synthesis of 4- -n-propylaminoethyl-1-hydroxy-2-pyridone. The 4-(2'-(-(1-methyl-3'-carbamylphenyl)-n-pyropyl)aminoethyl)-1-hydroxy-2-pyridone which has isoelectronic and isosteric structural similarity with dobutamine without having the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase(COMT) vulnerable m-hydroxy gr...

Mehta, A.; Jain, A.C.; Mehta, M.C.; Billie, M., 2000: Usefulness of left atrial abnormality for predicting left ventricular hypertrophy in the presence of left bundle branch block. The objective of this study was to identify left atrial (LA) abnormality on the electrocardiogram and other related variables as predictors of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy in the presence of left bundle branch block (LBBB). In the presence of...

Boyd, S.; Hewlett, N., 2001: The gender imbalance among speech and language therapists and students. Speech and language therapy is still a predominantly female profession. This paper reports the numbers and percentages of males among the population of student speech and language therapists in the UK in 1999-2000. The numbers imply that there is...