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The heme oxygenase system selectively enhances the anti-inflammatory macrophage-M2 phenotype, reduces pericardial adiposity, and ameliorated cardiac injury in diabetic cardiomyopathy in Zucker diabetic fatty rats

, : The heme oxygenase system selectively enhances the anti-inflammatory macrophage-M2 phenotype, reduces pericardial adiposity, and ameliorated cardiac injury in diabetic cardiomyopathy in Zucker diabetic fatty rats. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 345(2): 239-249

Cardiac function is adversely affected by pericardial adiposity. We investigated the effects of the heme oxygenase (HO) inducer, hemin on pericardial adiposity, macrophage polarization, and diabetic cardiopathy in Zucker diabetic fatty rats (ZDFs) with use of echocardiographic, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western immunoblotting, enzyme immunoassay, and spectrophotometric analysis. In ZDFs, hemin administration increased HO activity; normalized glycemia; potentiated insulin signaling by enhancing insulin receptor substrate 1(IRS-1), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), and protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt; suppressed pericardial adiposity, cardiac hypertrophy, and left ventricular longitudinal muscle fiber thickness, a pathophysiological feature of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy; and correspondingly reduced systolic blood pressure, total peripheral resistance, and pro-inflammatory/oxidative mediators, including nuclear factor B (NF-B), cJNK, c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (cJNK), endothelin (ET-1), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)–6, IL-1β, activating protein 1 (AP-1), and 8-isoprostane, whereas the HO inhibitor, stannous mesoporphyrin, nullified the effects. Furthermore, hemin reduced the pro-inflammatory macrophage M1 phenotype, but enhanced the M2 phenotype that dampens inflammation. Because NF-B activates TNFα, IL-6, and IL-1β and TNF-α, cJNK, and AP-1 impair insulin signaling, the high levels of these cytokines in obesity/diabetes would create a vicious cycle that, together with 8-isoprostane and ET-1, exacerbates cardiac injury, compromising cardiac function. Therefore, the concomitant reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and macrophage infiltration coupled to increased expressions of IRS-1, PI3K, and PKB may account for enhanced glucose metabolism and amelioration of cardiac injury and function in diabetic cardiomyopathy. The hemin-induced preferential polarization of macrophages toward anti-inflammatory macrophage M2 phenotype in cardiac tissue with concomitant suppression of pericardial adiposity in ZDFs are novel findings. These data unveil the benefits of hemin against pericardial adiposity, impaired insulin signaling, and diabetic cardiomyopathy and suggest that its multifaceted protective mechanisms include the suppression of inflammatory/oxidative mediators.


PMID: 23442249

DOI: 10.1124/jpet.112.200808

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