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Heavy-ion Acceleration and Self-generated Waves in Coronal Shocks

, : Heavy-ion Acceleration and Self-generated Waves in Coronal Shocks.

Acceleration in coronal mass ejection driven shocks is currentlyconsidered the primary source of large solar energetic particle events.The solar wind, which feeds shock-accelerated particles, includesnumerous ion populations, which offer much insight into acceleration processes.We present first simulations of shock-accelerated minor ions, in order toexplore trapping dynamics and acceleration timescales in detail.We have simulated diffusive shock acceleration of minor ions (3He2+,4He2+, 16O6+ and 56Fe14+) and protons using a Monte Carlo method, whereself-generated Alfv\'enic turbulence allows for repeated shock crossings andacceleration to high energies. We present the effect of minor ions on wave generation, especiallyat low wavenumbers, and show that it is significant. We find that maximum ionenergy is determined by the competing effects of particle escape due tofocusing in an expanding flux tube and trapping due to the amplifiedturbulence. We show the dependence of cut-off energy on the particle charge tomass ratio to be approximately (Q/A)^1.5.We suggest that understanding the acceleration of minor ions atcoronal shocks requires simulations which allow us to explore trapping dynamicsand acceleration timescales in detail, including evolution of the turbulenttrapping boundary. We conclude that steady-state models do not adequatelydescribe the acceleration of heavy ions in coronal shocks.


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