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The Influence of Global Self-Heating on the Yarkovsky and YORP Effects

, : The Influence of Global Self-Heating on the Yarkovsky and YORP Effects. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 433(1): 603-621

We present an adaptation of the ATPM to simultaneously predict the Yarkovskyand YORP effects in the presence of global self-heating that occurs within thelarge concavities of irregularly shaped asteroids, which has been neglected ordismissed in all previous models. It is also combined with rough surfacethermal-infrared beaming effects, which have been previously shown to enhancethe Yarkovsky-orbital-drift and dampen on average theYORP-rotational-acceleration by orders of several tens of per cent. Tests onall published concave shape models of near-Earth asteroids, and also on onehundred Gaussian-random-spheres, show that the Yarkovsky effect is sensitive toshadowing and global self-heating effects at the few per cent level or less.For simplicity, Yarkovsky models can neglect these effects if the level ofaccuracy desired is of this order. Unlike the Yarkovsky effect, the YORP effectcan be very sensitive to shadowing and global self-heating effects. Itssensitivity increases with decreasing relative strength of theYORP-rotational-acceleration, and doesn't appear to depend greatly on thedegree of asteroid concavity. Global self-heating tends to produce a verticaloffset in an asteroid's YORP-rotational-acceleration versus obliquity curvewhich is in opposite direction to that produced by shadowing effects. It alsoensures that at least one critical obliquity angle exists at which zeroYORP-rotational-acceleration occurs. Global self-heating must be included foraccurate predictions of the YORP effect if an asteroid exhibits a largeshadowing effect. If global self-heating effects are not included then it isfound in ~75 per cent of cases that better predictions are produced whenshadowing is also not included. Furthermore, global self-heating hasimplications for reducing the sensitivity of the YORP effect predictions todetailed variations in an asteroid's shape model.


DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt750

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