geoscience.net logo
+ Resolve Article
+ Follow Us
Follow on FacebookFollow on Facebook
Follow on TwitterFollow on Twitter

+ Translate
+ Subscribe to Site Feed
GeoScience Most Shared ContentMost Shared Content

Water extract of deer bones activates macrophages and alleviates neutropenia


, : Water extract of deer bones activates macrophages and alleviates neutropenia. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2013: 617302-617302

Extracts from deer bones, called nok-gol in Korean, have long been used to invigorate Qi. While neutropenia is not well detected in normal physiological condition, it could be a cause of severe problems to develop diseases such as infectious and cancerous diseases. Thus, a prevention of neutropenia in normal physiology and pathophysiological states is important for maintaining Qi and preventing disease progress. In cell biological aspects, activated macrophages are known to prevent neutropenia. In this study, we demonstrate that water extract of deer bone (herein, NG) prevents neutropenia by activating macrophages. In mouse neutropenia model system in vivo where ICR mice were treated with cyclophosphamide to immunosuppress, an oral administration of NG altered the number of blood cells including lymphocytes, neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils. This in vivo effect of NG was relevant to that of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) that was known to improve neutropenia. Our in vitro studies further showed that NG treatment increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and promoted macrophagic differentiation of mouse monocytic Raw264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, NG enhanced nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and secretions of cytokines including IL-6 and TNF- α . Consistently, NG treatment induced phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, IKK, I κ B α , and NF- κ B in Raw264.7 cells. Thus, our data suggest that NG is helpful for alleviating neutropenia.

US$19.90

PMID: 23840259

DOI: 10.1155/2013/617302


Other references

Meunier-Carus, J., 1962: Value of exercise tests in pneumology. Strasbourg Medical 13: 148-155

López-Bueno, A.; Mateu, M.G.; Almendral, Jé.M., 2003: High mutant frequency in populations of a DNA virus allows evasion from antibody therapy in an immunodeficient host. The degree of genetic heterogeneity of DNA virus populations in nature and its consequences for disease control are virtually unknown. The parvovirus minute virus of mice (MVMi) was used here to investigate (i) the frequency of antibody-escape mut...

Anonymous, 2012: Oogenesis and ultrastructure of the ovary in Neotrigonia margaritacea Lamarck Bivalvia, Mollusca. The solitary mode of oogenesis in the Australian marine bivalve, Neotrigonia margaritacea, observed in specimens sampled over a 5-month period, is described. The structures of oocytes and gonad tissue are described for the first time in this genus...

Holson, R.R., 1986: Mesial prefrontal cortical lesions and timidity in rats. III. Behavior in a semi-natural environment. Behavior of adult male rats with and without lesions in mesial prefrontal cortex (MFC) was studied in a large (72 m2) semi-natural environment (SNE) equipped with numerous wooden nest boxes. The experiment was conducted in 2 partial replicates, on...

Beyer, M.; Eggeling, T.; Hoffer, H.; Mierdl, S.E.; Beyer, U.; Hannekum, A., 1992: Experimental selective myocardial infarction in the dog without open-chest-surgery. In 16 dogs, a selective myocardial infarction (MI) was experimentally provoked without open-chest-surgery by means of microspheres (MS) injected into a Judkins-catheter positioned into the left anterior descending coronary (LAD) under fluoroscopy....

Piskun R.P., 1974: The effect of benziadaron on the histological structure of the liver and kidneys during experimental athero sclerosis. Vrachebnoe Delo 10: 64-66

T.N.C.ase; R.A.P.elke Sr.; T.G.F.K.ttel; R.R.N.mani; S.W.R.nning, 2000: Simulated impacts of historical land cover changes on global climate in northern winter. This ten-year general circulation model experiment compared a simulation where land surface boundary conditions were represented by observed, present day land cover to a simulation where the surface was represented by natural, potential land cover...

Anonymous, 1947: Agricultural prospects of Reunion island. The population of Reunion island, which is 250, 000 inhabitants living on 50, 000 cultivated hectares (giving a density of 500 per km2) derive their means of existence from agriculture, chiefly from cultivation of sugar cane. Sugar, alcohol, vanil...

Egerton, E.A., 1985: Choice of career of doctors who graduated from Queen's University, Belfast in 1977. Questionnaires were distributed in 1983 to 139 doctors who graduated from Queen's University Medical School in 1977, in the final stage of a longitudinal study of their choice of career. Replies were obtained from 96.4%. The average number of...

Mammen, E.F., 2005: Current development in antithrombotic therapy. Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis 30(6): 605-607