geoscience.net logo
+ Resolve Article
+ Follow Us
Follow on FacebookFollow on Facebook
Follow on TwitterFollow on Twitter

+ Translate
+ Subscribe to Site Feed
GeoScience Most Shared ContentMost Shared Content

Experimental research on accumulation of a light petroleum product layer above a groundwater table


, : Experimental research on accumulation of a light petroleum product layer above a groundwater table. Congres Geologique International, Resumes 33

Entering the unsaturated zone, light petroleum products (LPP) accumulate in the capillary zone and descend on a groundwater table. Both LPP levels and the thickness of mobile LPP layer in monitoring well data do not correspond to true levels and thickness. To study LPP lens accumulation above a groundwater table and represent this process by a monitoring well an experiment was carried out where a mobile kerosene layer accumulated on a groundwater table in a plexiglass column established on a pan and filled with sand. Through the pan a tube was taken out to specify boundary conditions simulating a groundwater table. A water volume flowing out from the tube at water level during kerosene supply onto a sand surface represented a relation between water in the column and the aquifer. Movement of mobile kerosene H(ao) (air-LPP) and H(ow) (LPP-water) levels along the column was registered by kerosene appearance in piezometers installed into the wall of the column through 2 cm. An aluminium perforated gauze corner glued to the wall of the column played a role of a monitoring well. Level elevations in the well were determined visually through the transparent wall of the column by means of a measuring bar glued nearby. When kerosene moved through the unsaturated zone, the interface air-water (a-w) changed for kerosene-water, which has much smaller surface tension. It resulted to decrease of the height of capillary elevation in pores wetted by kerosene and water outflow from the column. Kerosene started accumulating at the height h(a)(max) = h(d)(ow) kerosene-water displacement head when tension forces of "kerosene water" surface stand up to the weight of the column of kerosene. H(ao) level rose in sand filling free pores while the bottom of mobile kerosene layer (H(T) ) descended replacing water from smaller capillaries until it reached a groundwater table. Then it removed downward due to hydraulic pressure difference in the column and at the boundary of aquifer. The kerosene layer formed still 10 days. The difference between calculated and experimental data was 8-10%. Such data are necessary for calculations: T(w) , h(d)(ow) , h(d)(ao) air-LPP displacement head, rho(o) and rho(w) , alpha(ao) , alpha(ow) parameters of van Genuchten function (VG) for (a-o) and (o-w) systems, or T(w) , h(d)(aw) air-LPP displacement head; sigma(aw) , sigma(ow) , sigma(ao) surface tension of the interface air-water, LPP-water and air-LPP and also sigma(aw) , epsilon parameters of VG function for (a-w) system. Determination of LPP layer location includes calculation of maximal thickness of a LPP layer in the unsaturated zone: T(max) =h(d)(ow) /gamma(o) ; calculation: T+h(a) = (1 - gamma(o) )T(w) ; comparison T(max) with (T+h(a) ): (T+h(a) )(max) a LPP layer in the capillary zone, (T+h(a) ) = T(max) a LPP layer closed on a groundwater table; (T+h(a) )>T(max) a LPP layer closed on a groundwater table; (T+h(a) )>T(max) a LPP-water boundary locates lower a ground-water table.

US$29.90


Other references

Kimura M.; Satoh J.; Ueno M.; Horikoshi I.; Sakuragawa N., 1983: Adsorption of thrombin to glass surfaces and changes of thrombin activity. Several factors having an influence on the thrombin activity were investigated. Inactivation of thrombin activity apparently depended on both incubation time of solution and the amount adsorbed on the glass surface of the test tube; thrombin solut...

Boutibonnes, P.; Auffray, Y., 1987: Evidence that N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine induces adaptive response in Bacillus thuringiensis. Bacillus thuringiensis is shown to have an inducible error-free repair system for alkylation damage as found in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. Growth of cells in the presence of low concentrations of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanid...

Bell, JC.; Walls, R.; Allan, JR.; Watola, G.; Burton, NHK.; Musgrove, AJ.; Rehfisch, MM., 2003: Study on the potential safety risks from birds at and around a potential new airport at Cliffe Marshes and measures for mitigating those risks. Final report, March 2003. Unknown

Jerger, J., 1997: Functional asymmetries in the auditory system. This paper describes interaural differences in a variety of listening tasks. We summarize both behavioral and electrophysiologic evidence that performance, in persons with both normal and impaired hearing, differs according to which ear is stimula...

Gerbaux, P.; Sciamanna, V.; Flammang, R.; Nguyen, M.T., 2001: High-energy collisional activation of the molecular ions of thiophene-2-one with different target gases. Collisional activation of keV thiophene-2-one radical cations 1(+*) with O(2) or NO(*) as the target gas leads to a desulfuration reaction. This peculiar reaction is insignificant or absent with other targets such as helium, argon, methane or nitr...

Takiyama, N.; Dunigan, J.T.; Vallor, M.J.; Kase, R.; Sakuraba, H.; Barranger, J.A., 1999: Retrovirus-mediated transfer of human alpha-galactosidase A gene to human CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells. Fabry disease, caused by a deficiency of lysosomal enzyme alpha-galactosidase A (alpha-gal A), is one of the inherited disorders potentially treatable by gene transfer to hematopoietic stem cells. In this study, a high-titer amphotropic retroviral...

Kim, H.-Taek; Kim, D.-Kee; Cho, Y.-Baik; Kim, T.-Soo; Jung, I.; Kim, K., H.; Heo, D.-Seog; Bang, Y.-Jue; Shin, S.-Goo; Kim, N.-Kyeong, 1998: Influence of exposure and infusion times on the cytotoxicity and pharmacokinetics of cis-malonato((4R,5R)-4,5-bis(aminomethyl)-2-isopropyl-1,3-dioxolane)platinum(II). The effect of exposure time on the in vitro cytotoxicity of a new platinum complex, cis-malonato((4R,5R)-4,5-bis(aminomethyl)-2-isopropyl-1,3-dioxolane)platinum(II) (SKI 2053R) and cisplatin (CDDP) toward two human lung-adenocarcinoma cell lines (...

Semb, H., 2006: Human embryonic stem cells: origin, properties and applications. Human embryonic stem cells originate from the human preimplantation embryo. The derivation of the first human embryonic stem cells was reported in 1998. Since then we have learnt a great deal about how to isolate and culture these cells. Additiona...

Kuo, F-Yu.; Hsiao, H-Chiang.; Chiou, C-Wang.; Liu, C-Peng., 2008: Recurrent syncope due to carotid sinus hypersensitivity and sick sinus syndrome. Syncope is a sudden and brief loss of consciousness with postural tone. Its recovery is usually spontaneous. There are various causes of syncope including cardiac, vascular, neurologic, metabolic and miscellaneous origins. The tracing is usually t...

Sanchez Dominguez, S.; Munoz Orozco, A.; Gonzalez Hernandez, V.A.; Martinez Garza, A., 2006: Characterization and classification of Mexican peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) germplasm. Due to the great variation of environments in Mexico which induce a considerable genotype-environment interaction and for the purpose of generating basic information for future investigators, a study was made of 64 accessions and cultivars of grou...