+ Resolve Article
+ Follow Us
Follow on FacebookFollow on Facebook
Follow on TwitterFollow on Twitter

+ Translate
+ Subscribe to Site Feed
GeoScience Most Shared ContentMost Shared Content

How threat displays work species-specific fighting techniques, weaponry and proximity risk

, : How threat displays work species-specific fighting techniques, weaponry and proximity risk. Animal Behaviour 76(5): 1455-1463

Whether threat displays can reveal information about the strength or condition of the contestants is a long-debated issue. Enquist (1985, Animal Behaviour, 33, 1152-1161) showed that communication of such information is possible by means of choice of action in aggressive encounters. The key assumption of Enquist's model is that weak individuals signalling that they are strong (i.e. cheaters) cannot get away without fighting even if they want to, if they meet an honest strong individual. However, this assumption was not elaborated further and Enquist's model is often cited in support of Zahavi's handicap principle. Here I elaborate this assumption and show in terms of Enquist's model, by introducing spatial distance between opponents as a continuous variable, that it is the proximity of the opponent, what I call 'proximity risk', that maintains the honesty of threat displays. I show that the honest use of threat displays, sensu Enquist, is evolutionarily stable only within a certain distance threshold. Outside this threshold there may or may not be a zone where a mixture of honest and cheating displays can be evolutionarily stable. Outside this second zone threat displays are unreliable and thus expected not to be used and attended to. The model gives specific predictions about weaponry, species-specific fighting techniques and the value of these thresholds. Finally, I show that key predictions of the model, namely the relation between signal intensity, riskiness and proximity has strong support in the literature.


DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2008.07.010

Other references

Imberciadori, I., 1974: Raffaello Lambruschini, the romanticist of metayage. Rivista di storia dell'agricoltura: 14 (3) 89-110

Witjes, J.A.; Van Der Heijden, A.G.; Vriesema, J.L.J.; Peters, G.J.; Laan, A.; Schalken, J.A., 2004: Intravesical gamcitabine: A phase 1 and pharmacokinetic study. Introduction: Superficial bladder cancer can be treated by transurethral resection and additional intravesical therapy. Although agents like Mitomycin C, Epirubicin and BCG are routinely used, there is a need for more potent and/or less toxic agen...

Henein, M.Y.; Gibson, D.G., 1995: Suppression of left ventricular early diastolic filling by long axis asynchrony. Objective: To assess how early diastolic transmitral flow is suppressed in a group of patients in whom effective ventricular filling occurred exclusively with atrial systole. Design: Prospective examination of the left ventricular transverse and l...

Shirasuka, T.; Wakabayashi, H.; Debari, K.; Kodaka, T.; Ahmed, S.; Matsumoto, K., 1990: Morphologic changes in human tooth enamel by continuous-wave Nd-YAG laser irradiation. Showa Shigakkai Zasshi 10(2): 206-215

Gallego, S.; Puigcerver, M.; Rodriguez Teijeiro, J.D.; Rodrigo Rueda, F.J.; Roldan, G., 1995: Some issues of the phenology and reproductive biology of the quail in Catalonia, SPA. This paper provides new information concerning some phenological aspects and some issues of the breeding biology of the European Quail, Coturnix c. coturnix. either in free or in semicaptive conditions. Direct relationships were found between the...

Mitchell, J.M.; Yee, A.J.; McNab, W.B.; Griffiths, M.W.; McEwen, S.A., 1999: Validation of the LacTek test applied to spiked extracts of tissue samples: determination of performance characteristics. LacTekTM tests are competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays intended for rapid detection of antimicrobial residues in bovine milk. In this study, the LacTek test protocol was modified for use with extracts of bovine tissue to detect beta-lac...

Buddee, F.W.; Johnson, D.C.; Jellins, J.; Coupland, G.A.; Reeve, T.S., 1969: Experimental and clinical experiences in the use of ultrasound for the early detection of pulmonary emboli: a preliminary report. Medical Journal of Australia 1(6): 295-297

Tong Jinnan, 1998: The Middle Triassic of South China and the stratigraphic correlation among different paleogeographic sedimentary facies. Hallesches Jahrbuch fuer Geowissenschaften Reihe B: Geologie, Palaeontologie, Mineralogie

Trevino, S.; Massey, J.A., 1983: Risk factors for arrhythmias after myocardial infarction. Heart & Lung 12(3): 240-247

Schreven, D.A.Van., 1963: Nitrogen transformations in the former subaqueous soils of polders recently reclaimed from Lake Ijssel. I. Water-extractable, exchangeable & fixed ammonium. The high quantities of exchangeable NH4-N occurring to considerable depths in underwater borings apparently arose from anaerobic ammonification under water; at some sites the quantities were correlated with percentage of humus. The N-mineralizing...