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Beitrage zur postembryonalen Gliedmassenbildung bei den Insecten

, : Beitrage zur postembryonalen Gliedmassenbildung bei den Insecten. Zeitschrift fuer Wissenschaftliche Zoologie Supplement, XXX 78-105

Studies on the formation of the legs and wings in the worker of Formica rufa in the larval state and during pupation, and of the wings in sexuated individuals; on the development of the wings in Lepidoptera; and on the formation of the spines on the pronotum in Myrmica laevinodis; with comparison of these researches with those of other observers, and remarks on the circumstances connected with want of wings in the workers of Ants and Termites. The existence in the workers of ants of two very small wing-discs similar in all ways to those of the future winged individuals, and appearing with the first development of the creature, is proved. The thoracic segmental substances in ants appear first in the young larvae as discoidal hypodermal thickenings, separating into a germ (whether of legs or wings) and an enveloping layer, which, however, exhibits an external aperture; and these substances throw off a chitinous covering at an early stage both in ants; bees, and humble-bees. The formation of the wings in Lepidoptera, and indeed of the limb-substances in all Insects, proceeds from the hypodermis, though the tracheae, nerves, &c., that penetrate them probably always complete the inner construction of the appendages. The great difference between females and workers in ants is probably not caused by any variation in treatment of the eggs or larvae by the perfect workers, as happens in the bees; the egg most likely receives the germ of its future development before exclusion from the mother. In the supplement, Schmidt discusses Ganin's views which have come to his knowledge subsequently to the publication of his own paper; he disagrees with that author's views as to the rupture and extrusion of the enveloping sac of the limbs.


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