geoscience.net logo
+ Resolve Article
+ Follow Us
Follow on FacebookFollow on Facebook
Follow on TwitterFollow on Twitter

+ Translate
+ Subscribe to Site Feed
GeoScience Most Shared ContentMost Shared Content

Anorectal physiology and pathophysiology


, : Anorectal physiology and pathophysiology. American Journal of Gastroenterology 82(6): 487-497

The anatomy and physiology of the external anal sphincter, puborectalis muscle, internal anal sphincter, and rectum are described. Measurement techniques are reviewed emphasizing those which can be carried out by the gastroenterologist in independent office practice, and the range of normal values for each test is given. A protocol for diagnostic evaluation of anorectal disorders is recommended which includes testing for rectal prolapse and for descent of the perineum by having the patient strain while seated on a commode chair, evaluating the external and internal anal sphincters by recording EMG with an anal plug, or recording pressures with a perfused catheter or balloon probe, using a rectal balloon to evaluate the maximum tolerable volume of rectal distension and the minimum (threshold) volume of a bolus injection which can be subjectively perceived, and arranging with a radiologist to perform a proctogram--a radiograph of the rectum and anal canal during rest and when the patient strains to defecate--in order to evaluate the anorectal angle (puborectalis muscle) and to detect rectocele and intussusception. These objective tests should be supplemented by a careful clinical history and physical examination.

US$29.90

PMID: 3554989


Other references

Erim, Y.; Morawa, E., 2016: Psychotherapy with Immigrants and Traumatized Refugees. NlmCategory="UNASSIGNED">In view of the growing proportion of immigrants and refugees in the population of Germany the knowledge on the influence of culture and migration on identity, and mental health presents a substantial basis for...

Slominsky, P.A.; Markova, E.D.; Shadrina, M.I.; Illarioshkin, S.N.; Miklina, N.I.; Limborska, S.A.; Ivanova-Smolenskaya, I.A., 1999: A common 3-bp deletion in the DYT1 gene in Russian families with early-onset torsion dystonia. Hereditary torsion dystonia represent a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of movement disorders. The most severe and frequent form of hereditary torsion dystonia is early-onset generalized dystonia, DYT1. The DYT1 gene (Ozelius et al....

Loken, A.C., 1974: Progressive multifocal leucoencephalography. A neuropathological and electronmicroscopical study of two cases. Acta Pathologica et Microbiologica Scandinavica. Supplement Suppl 248: 127-132

Jacobelli, G., 1955: Physiology of the appendix caeci and therapy of appendicitis. Archivio Italiano Delle Malattie Dell'apparato Digerente 21(6): 479-482

Sugár, I.P.; Mizuno, N.K.; Brockman, H.L., 2005: Peripheral protein adsorption to lipid-water interfaces: the free area theory. In fluid monolayers approaching collapse, phospholipids and their complexes with diacylglycerols hinder adsorption to the monolayer of the amphipathic protein, colipase. Herein, a statistical, free-area model, analogous to that used to analyze two...

Chen, Y.; Dai, Y-tian.; Sun, Z-yu., 2006: Neurotrophin and erectile dysfunction in diabetes. Neurotrophins play significant roles in the development, differentiation and regeneration of many neurons. The abnormal changes of neurotrophins are one of the nosogenesis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Erectile dysfunction (ED) in diabetes is...

See, G.; Guillaumin, J.P.; Delthil, P.; Montekio, A., 1964: Comparative state of children born according to ordinary methods of delivery or after psychosomatic preparation. Semaine Therapeutique 40(2): 111-116

Mileyev V.S.; Yunakovskaya Y.V., 1982: Global geologic studies and cartographic representations. Ocherki po Istorii Geologicheskikh Znanii 21: 238-247

Glicken, A.Duhl., 2008: Excellence in physician assistant training through faculty development. Once again, experts predict a shortage of health care providers by 2020. The physician assistant (PA) profession was created in the 1960s to address a similar need. Currently, there are 141 accredited PA training programs in the United States, 75...

Takaoka, Y., 1990: A study on measurement of auditory reaction time. In order to determine auditory reaction time, different test methods for central conducting modes (simple reaction, choice reaction, simultaneous reaction and time lag reaction) were carried out on normal subjects. As test sounds, pure tone, white...