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Calcium-ganglioside interactions and synaptic plasticity: effect of calcium on specific ganglioside/peptide (valinomycin, gramicidin A)-complexes in mixed mono- and bilayers

, : Calcium-ganglioside interactions and synaptic plasticity: effect of calcium on specific ganglioside/peptide (valinomycin, gramicidin A)-complexes in mixed mono- and bilayers. Neurochemistry International 20(3): 323-338

A controlled exchange of calcium between the extracellular space (mM Ca2+) and the neuroplasm (microM Ca2+) is considered to be an essential prerequisite for almost every stage of neuronal activity. Our research interest is focused on those compounds, which due to their physico-chemical properties and localization within the synaptic membrane might fulfill the task as neuromodulators for functional synaptic proteins. Because of this specific binding properties towards calcium and their peculiar interactions with calcium in model systems gangliosides (amphiphilic sialic acid containing glycosphingolipids) are favorite candidates for a functional involvement in synaptic transmission of information. In this study we used monolayers to investigate the molecular packing and surface potential at the air/water interface, the interaction of gangliosides with the depsipeptide valinomycin (= monovalent ion carrier), and its influenceability by calcium. Furthermore we looked at calcium effects on the single channel conductance and mean channel life-time of the monovalent ion channel gramicidin A in mixed PC/ganglioside bilayers. In pure ganglioside monolayers the addition of 0.01 mM Ca2+ induces monolayer condensation, a rise in collapse pressure (= higher film stability), a shift of phase transition (= change of conformation), and a more negative head group potential (change of electric properties). In mixed ganglioside-valinomycin monolayers the addition of Ca2+ causes phase separation and/or aggregate formation between the ganglioside and the peptide. Single channel conductance fluctuations as well as mean channel life-time were analyzed for gramicidin A incorporated into binary mixed black lipid membranes of negatively charged gangliosides (GM1, GD1a, GT1b, GMix) and neutral lecithin (DOPC) in different molar ratios. At monovalent electrolyte concentrations up to < 250 mM CsCl the single channel conductance was significantly larger in the negatively charged mixed DOPC/ganglioside membranes than in the neutral DOPC membrane. Additionally, in the presence of gangliosides the mean channel life-time is increased. The addition of calcium (0.05 mM) induced a reduction of single channel conductance of gramicidin A in DOPC- and mixed DOPC/ganglioside membranes. These physico-chemical data in connection with new electromicroscopical evidences for a precise localization of calcium, a calcium pump (Ca(2+)-ATPase), a clustered arrangement of gangliosides in synaptic terminals, and biochemical results with regard to activatory nature of exogenous gangliosides for neuronal protein phosphorylation and ATPases, support the hypothesis of a modulatory function of gangliosides in synaptic transmission.


PMID: 1284679

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