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SIV, STLV-I and type D retrovirus antibodies in captive rhesus macaques and immunoblot reactivity to SIV p27 in human and rhesus monkey sera

, : SIV, STLV-I and type D retrovirus antibodies in captive rhesus macaques and immunoblot reactivity to SIV p27 in human and rhesus monkey sera. Aids Research and Human Retroviruses 6(11): 1233-1238

The prevalence of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), simian T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (STLV-I), and type D retrovirus (SRV-D) antibodies was determined for 1229 rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) from two research colonies. Serum samples were tested by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunoblot (IB), and radioimmunoprecipitation assay (RIPA). Seropositive results for the three retroviruses tested were 0 for SIV, 270 (22%) for STLV-I, and 103 (8.4%) for type D retrovirus. Of the rhesus monkey sera, 61 (5.0%) were reactive to SIV gag p27 only, when tested by IB, but were negative when further tested by RIPA. Virus isolation was attempted from cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 35 monkeys whose sera contained only p27 reactivity and none were positive by reverse transcriptase and core antigen assays to detect SIV. No overt clinical signs of immunodeficiency disease or unexplained deaths were evident in either monkey colony. Additionally, 63 of 165 (38%) human sera from various groups (primate center workers, normal donors, health care workers) had weak to moderate IB reactivity only to SIV p27, but 31 of 31 sera tested were negative by RIPA. These sera remained reactive to SIV p27 following absorption with an uninfected cell lysate, after blocking IB strips with various blocking solutions and were reactive to different SIV antigen preparations while remaining negative to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) by IB and negative to HIV-2 by ELISA. These data underscore the need to adopt criteria for a positive SIV serologic test requiring reactivity against more than one viral gene product. These results also illustrate a potential problem in the testing of human sera for antibodies against simian retroviruses and demonstrate the need for caution in the interpretation of immunoblot results.


PMID: 1706606

DOI: 10.1089/aid.1990.6.1233

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