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The nature of the mesoderm-inducing signal in Xenopus: a transfilter induction study


, : The nature of the mesoderm-inducing signal in Xenopus: a transfilter induction study. Development 113(2): 661-669

A transfilter apparatus is described, which is suitable for neutralization experiments on embryonic induction, and it is used to investigate the sensitivity of the Xenopus mesoderm-inducing signal to various inhibitors. The vegetal (inducing) tissue is placed on one side of a membrane sandwich and the animal (responding) tissue on the other side. The sandwich consists of a nylon gauze in between two Nucleopore filters and enables inhibitors in the solution to have effective access to the gap between the tissues. Control experiments show a high proportion of positive inductions of a ventral character. Using this apparatus, it is shown that the protein follistatin, which effectively inhibits activin A and B in vitro, has little or no effect on the natural signal. Likewise, antibodies to basic fibroblast growth factor, which inhibit in vitro, do not inhibit the natural signal. The two inhibitors together have a slight effect. It is concluded that neither activin nor bFGF are major components of the signal emitted by the vegetal cells of the Xenopus blastula and transmitted across the liquid gap, although they might have some other role to play in the process. Two agents of lower specificity do inhibit the transfilter induction: heparin and suramin. Suramin will also inhibit induction in animal-vegetal combinations with no intervening membranes while heparin does not. This suggests that the heparin inhibition can only occur when there is a liquid gap between the tissues, presumably because it can neutralize the signal in solution but cannot penetrate the explants themselves. The endogenous mesoderm-inducing factor(s) should therefore be sensitive to heparin in vitro.

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PMID: 1782872


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