+ Resolve Article
+ Follow Us
Follow on FacebookFollow on Facebook
Follow on TwitterFollow on Twitter

+ Translate
+ Subscribe to Site Feed
GeoScience Most Shared ContentMost Shared Content

A new orthogonal lead for P synchronous pacing

, : A new orthogonal lead for P synchronous pacing. Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology 4(6): 638-644

P synchronous pacing has long been identified as advantageous for patients with atrioventricular conduction defects and intact sinus node function. Prior endocavitary systems have been infrequently employed, because of unreliable P wave sensing from standard ring electrodes in the atrium or the requirement for a second atrial sensing lead. A single endocardial lead employing a unipolar ventricular stimulating electrode and an orthogonal P wave sensing design was developed and tested in 22 patients undergoing electrophysiologic study or pacemaker implantation. Thirteen centimeters from the stimulating tip of a standard permanent pacing lead, three or four electrodes with a surface area of one millimeter squared, equidistant from the tip, were placed circumferentially about the catheter. With the catheter tip normally placed in the right ventricular apex, atrial sensing electrodes were positioned in the mid-high lateral right atrium, adjacent to, but not affixed to, the right atrial wall. Bipolar orthogonal leads X and Y were obtained. In 22 patients, during sinus rhythm, atrial electrogram voltages in the X axis of 2.47 plus or minus 1.6 millivolts and 2.32 plus or minus 1.6 millivolts in the Y axis were recorded. QRS voltages of 0.078 millivolts and 0.073 millivolts, respectively, allowed dramatic ability to discriminate P from QRS complexes (P/QRS equals 32/1). There was no change in QRS or unipolar ventricular pacing. A single catheter designed for P synchronous pacing employing circumferentially placed atrial sensing electrodes has demonstrated unique atrial sensing voltages with excellent QRS signal rejection.


PMID: 6173853

Other references

Morita, T., 2003: Structure-based analysis of high pressure adaptation of alpha-actin. Deep-sea fishes occur to depths of several thousand meters, and at these abyssal depths encounter pressures that shallower living fishes cannot tolerate. Tolerance of abyssal pressures by deep-sea fish is likely to depend in part on adaptive modif...

Anonymous, 1935: Obstructions of the Trachea: (Section of Laryngology and Section of Otology). Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 28(12): 1587-1596

Havel, T.W.thrich, K., 1984: A distance geometry program for determining the structures of small proteins and other macromolecules from nuclear magnetic resonance measurements of intramolecular 1H-1H proximities in solution. DISGEO is a new implementation of a distance geometry algorithm which has been specialized for the calculation of macromolecular conformation from distance measurements obtained by two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy. The i...

High, D.M.; Whitehouse, P.J.; Post, S.G.; Berg, L., 1994: Guidelines for addressing ethical and legal issues in Alzheimer disease research: a position paper. Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders 8(Suppl. 4): 66-74

Spink, N.; Brown, D.G.; Skelly, J.V.; Neidle, S., 1994: Sequence-dependent effects in drug-DNA interaction: the crystal structure of Hoechst 33258 bound to the d(CGCAAATTTGCG)2 duplex. The bis-benzimidazole drug Hoechst 33258 has been co-crystallized with the dodecanucleotide sequence d(CGCAAATTTGCG)-2. The structure has been solved by molecular replacement and refined to an R factor of 18.5% for 2125 reflections collected on a...

Quiroz-Rocha, G.F.; Deravi, N.; Knight, B.; Bienzle, D., 2017: What is your diagnosis? A pigmented round cell tumor. Veterinary Clinical Pathology 46(3): 538-539

Bhardwat A.; Cho M.Y.K.; Einolf D.M., 1985: Vacuum fermentation of immobilized yeast cells. Abstracts of Papers American Chemical Society 190

de Oliveira e Silva, Aávio., 2013: Arquivos de Gastroenterology - 50 years. Arquivos de Gastroenterologia 50(1): 1-2

Drsata, J.; Beránek, M.; Palicka, Vír., 2002: Inhibition of aspartate aminotransferase by glycation in vitro under various conditions. Incubation of 50 mM D-glucose with aspartate aminotransferase (AST, EC preparations (purified pig heart enzyme or a rat liver 20,000 x g supernatant) at 25 degrees C had no effect on enzyme activity. 50 mM D-fructose or D-ribose gradually...

Ward J.D., 1988: On an interpretation of the Oswater Conglomerate Formation, Kuiseb Valley, Namib Desert. Palaeoecology of Africa and of the Surrounding Islands 19: 119-125