+ Resolve Article
+ Follow Us
Follow on FacebookFollow on Facebook
Follow on TwitterFollow on Twitter

+ Translate
+ Subscribe to Site Feed
GeoScience Most Shared ContentMost Shared Content

Anabolic steroids in athletics: how well do they work and how dangerous are they?

, : Anabolic steroids in athletics: how well do they work and how dangerous are they?. American Journal of Sports Medicine 12(1): 31-38

The use of anabolic drugs by athletes who wish to increase lean body mass and improve muscular strength is widespread, especially among elite weight-trained athletes. The current regimens used for steroid doping include combinations of injectable and oral preparations of steroids at doses 10 to 40 times greater than those prescribed therapeutically. Most of the scientific studies of steroid use by healthy male athletes have used steroid doses substantially lower than those used by many athletes. Analysis of these studies suggests that most persons will gain an average of 2.2 kg of lean body weight during steroid administration but that there exist great individual differences in strength changes induced by steroids. Approximately 50% of the investigations show significant improvements in strength measurements with steroid treatment, whereas the remainder show indefinite effects. There is no substantial evidence to support the use of anabolic steroids for improving aerobic work capacity. Anabolic steroids cause interrupted growth and virilization in children, birth defects in the unborn, severe virilization in women, and testicular atrophy and reduced blood levels of gonadotropins and testosterone in adult males. In addition, the oral preparations of anabolic steroids are associated with liver dysfunction, including carcinoma and peliosis hepatis, and a number of other disorders including unpredictable changes in mood, aggression, and libido. Although there have been only rare reports of severe or life-threatening side effects in athletes who have abused steroids, such side effects may not appear obvious until 20 years or more of widespread steroid abuse.


PMID: 6367501

Other references

Jacobson, B.S.; Lee, T.C., 1964: Effects of gamma radiation and other agents on macromolecular synthesis and mitosis in Chlamydomonas. Radiation Res 22(1): 200

Rocha-Valadez, J.A.; Albiter, V.; Caro, M.A.; Serrano-Carreón, L.; Galindo, E., 2007: A fermentation system designed to independently evaluate mixing and/or oxygen tension effects in microbial processes: development, application and performance. In order to evaluate the independent effects of hydrodynamic conditions and/or oxygen tension on culture physiology and productivity, a fermentation system designed to control dissolved oxygen at constant power drawn (P/V) was developed. The syst...

Borden, J.H.; McClaren, M.H.rta, M.A., 1969: Fecal filaments produced by fungus-infesting larvae of Platydema oregonense. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 62: 444-446

López, D.M.; Álvarez-Rosero, R.E.; Sierra-Torres, C.H., 2015: Development of a metabolic syndrome personal health record system. According to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), a quarter of the world population is affected with metabolic syndrome (MS). The paper describes the development process of a Personal Health Record System (PHR) for the management of MS. Fo...

Fuhrmann, C.; Bopp, S.; Laqua, H., 1992: Congenital grouped albinotic spots: a rare anomaly of the retinal pigment epithelium. We describe the fundus findings of a 6-year-old girl with congenital grouped albinotic retinal pigment epithelial spots distributed over the fundus including the macular area. Apart from the fundus changes functional and electrophysiologic finding...

Kaur, M.; Chaudhary, M., 1981: L-Ascorbic acid contents of mango fruits infected with Sclerotium rolfsii and Colletotrichum falcatum. The rapid decline in ascorbic acid, 73.1% caused by C. falcatum [Glomerella tucumanensis] and 58.7% by S. rolfsii, may be due to degenerating enzymes produced either by the pathogen or by pathogen-host activity.

Garonna, A.P.; Scarpato, S.; Vicinanza, F.; Espinosa, B., 2016: First report of Toumeyella parvicornis (Cockerell) in Europe (Hemiptera: Coccidae). Zootaxa 3949(1): 142-146

Van Arsdell, G.S.; Maharaj, G.S.; Tom, J.; Rao, V.K.; Coles, J.G.; Freedom, R.M.; Williams, W.G.; Mccrindle, B.W., 2000: What is the optimal age for repair of tetralogy of Fallot?. Background-Controversy regarding the timing for the repair of tetralogy of Fallot centers around initial palliation versus primary repair for the symptomatic neonate/young infant and the optimal age for repair of the asymptomatic child. We changed...

Tochigi, N.; Ishiwatari, T.; Okubo, Y.; Ando, T.; Shinozaki, M.; Aki, K.; Gocho, K.; Hata, Y.; Murayama, S.Y.; Wakayama, M.; Nemoto, T.; Hori, Y.; Shibuya, K., 2016: Histological study of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis. Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) has been accepted the criteria for the diagnosis of pulmonary Aspergillus infection. Whereas, either pathophysiology or signs of CPA remains still controversial. In this study, we histopathologically investiga...

Wasniewski, A.; Gaazka, V., 1991: Baytril, Bayer - a preparation for treatment for salmonellosis in poultry. Tests in vitro with 41 Salmonella typhimurium and 74 Salmonella enteritidis strains showed that 39 (95%) and 68 (92%), respectively, were sensitive to Baytril (enrofloxacin) with much fewer being sensitive to streptomycin, oxytetracycline, neomyci...