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Biomechanical and morphometric analysis of hydroxyapatite-coated implants with varying crystallinity

, : Biomechanical and morphometric analysis of hydroxyapatite-coated implants with varying crystallinity. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 57(9): 1096-108; Discussion 1108-9

The level of crystallinity in hydroxyapatite (HA) is thought to be responsible for its degradation in the physiologic milieu. The purpose of this study was to compare the in vivo bony response to HA coatings of varying levels of crystallinity and determine the optimum composition for promoting osseointegration. Cylindrical implants of sand-blasted CP titanium and HA-coated titanium of 50% (low), 70% (medium), and 90% (high) crystallinity were inserted into the canine femur for 1, 4, 12, and 26 weeks. Morphometric analysis of undecalcified sections determined the percentage of bone contact with the implant surface. A pullout test was used to measure the interfacial attachment strength of the bone-implant interface. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) examination of the implant surface aided in identifying the failure mode. Coating thickness was measured under light microscopy to determine whether degradation occurred. No significant differences could be found in the percentage of bone contact and interfacial attachment strength between the three types of HA-coated implants throughout the four implantation periods. A significantly higher percentage of bone contact on HA-coated implants than on uncoated titanium implants was noted at 4 weeks. (ANOVA, P<.05). HA-coated implants were also found to have significantly higher interfacial attachment strength than titanium implants at 4, 12, and 26 weeks. Coating thickness decreased gradually with time. The most noticeable reduction was found on the low-crystallinity coatings during the first 4 weeks. Failure of the bone-coating-implant complex occurred mostly within the coating or near the coating-implant interface. HA coatings on metal implants enhance osseointegration in the early stage of bone healing and provide strong bone-bonding capability, although titanium implants had about the same level of bone contact in the later stage of healing. Crystallinity of HA coatings has no significant influence over the bone formation capacity and the bone bonding strength. However, an HA coating of higher crystallinity is more desirable in providing durability and maintaining osteoconductive properties.


PMID: 10484111

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