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Catheter-induced coronary spasm--a view of mechanical factors and experience with selective left coronary arteriography


, : Catheter-induced coronary spasm--a view of mechanical factors and experience with selective left coronary arteriography. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 63(2): 107-112

Coronary spasm during cardiac catheterization is not unusual. The mechanism of spasm remains uncertain, but is considered to be multifactorial. Many researchers believe that coronary spasm that develops during catheterization is partly spontaneous and partly catheter-induced. Because catheter-induced spasm results from mechanical irritation, we tried to find the iatrogenic factors that predispose patients to coronary spasm during coronary angiography. Retrospectively, we reviewed the records of 7,295 patients who underwent coronary angiography at our hospital from June, 1983 to November, 1997; coronary spasm was documented in 30 patients, who became the study group. We randomly selected 41 patients who had normal coronary arteries as the normal control group. After reviewing cine films of coronary angiography, we compared these two groups for several parameters. These parameters included the length and diameter of the left main coronary artery (LMC), the angle between the LMC and the aorta, the angle between the catheter tip and the LMC, whether the catheter tip came into contact with the vascular wall and whether there was vessel wall bulging, catheter size and catheter/LMC ratio. This angiographic data and the demographic features, including age, sex, history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, previous myocardial infarction, family history of coronary artery disease, cholesterol and triglyceride levels and chest pain character (exertional or rest pain) were compared between the study patient group and the control group. The results disclosed that larger catheter size (7.1 +/- 0.6 mm vs 6.4 +/- 0.7 mm, p < 0.001), smaller LMC diameter (4.2 +/- 0.9 mm vs 4.9 +/- 1.0 mm, p = 0.004), larger catheter/LMC ratio (0.07 +/- 0.05 vs 0.05 +/- 0.03, p = 0.022), catheter contact with the vessel wall (27/30 vs 20/41, p < 0.001) and vessel bulging (18/30 vs 5/41, p < 0.001) were related to catheter-induced coronary spasm. We found that the catheter tip coming into contact with the vessel wall, vessel wall bulging and catheter/LMC ratio (odds ratio 8.92 x 10(14)) were statistically significant factors predisposing patients to catheter-induced coronary spasm. Multiple factors contribute to coronary spasm. Of those, mechanical or iatrogenic factors might predispose patients to spasm during coronary catheterization. These facts deserve our attention, because iatrogenically induced spasms may be avoided by meticulously selecting catheters and manipulating them gently.

US$29.90

PMID: 10677920


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