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Platelet-vessel wall interactions in thrombosis and restenosis role of von Willebrand factor


, : Platelet-vessel wall interactions in thrombosis and restenosis role of von Willebrand factor. Verhandelingen - Koninklijke Academie Voor Geneeskunde van Belgie 59(3): 161-183

As a consequence of vessel wall injury, subendothelial matrix and collagen fibers are exposed to the flowing blood. Circulating platelets adhere to these structures and initiate arrest of blood flow. Subendothelial von Willebrand Factor (vWF) plays an important role in mediating platelet adhesion to the injured site, at least in the arterial circulation, characterized by sufficiently elevated shear forces to allow a critical conformation change in vWF, enabling an interaction between the vWF domain A1 and the vWF receptor on the platelet, the GPIb/IX complex. In vitro, in the absence of shear forces, non-physiological mediators are required to induce vWF binding to GPIb. Analysis of the mechanism according to which ristocetin induces vWF binding to GPIb revealed that 2 dimers of ristocetin simultaneously bind to vWF and GPIb, thus forming a quaternary complex in which repulsive negative charges are neutralized by the positively charged ristocetin. The interaction of vWF with its vascular receptor, i.e. collagen VI, which was isolated from human placenta and the extracellular matrix from lung fibroblasts, showed that vWF binds to collagen VI entirely via its A1 domain, i.e. via the domain that binds to GPIb. Also, vWF binding to intact extracellular matrices occurs to matrix associated collagen VI via the vWF A1 domain. By using a combination of 2 specific monoclonal anti-vWF antibodies, it was possible to induce conformational changes in WF that exposed the binding sequences in the A1 domain for GPIb. Thus, in the absence of shear forces, specific vWF binding to GPIb could be induced in the absence of any further mediators. This increased vWF binding to GPIb was sufficient to induce vWF dependent platelet aggregation, although as a consequence of Fc binding to the platelet Fc receptor, platelet activation also occurred via this pathway. Thus, general conformational changes in vWF suffice to expose the relevant amino acid sequences in the A1 domain that enable binding to GPIb. The collagen binding protein calin, isolated from the saliva of the medicinal leech, not only blocks platelet binding to collagen but also inhibited vWF binding. Thus this protein was able to inhibit both the vWF independent and vWF dependent platelet adhesion to various collagens, but much less the platelet binding to endothelial extracellular matrices, that contain matrix anchored vWF. In vivo anti-thrombotic studies in the hamster showed that the vWF antagonist aurin tricarboxylc acid was a more potent inhibitor of arterial thrombosis than of venous thrombosis, confirming the in vivo role of vWF during thrombus formation. Following vessel wall damage and thrombus formation, the neointima that formed in the hamster carotid artery developed more rapidly than in other models, and its formation partially responded to reported inhibitors of restenosis. The combination of cardiovascular drugs with complementary modes of action, such as G4120 (inhibitor of platelet GPIIb/IIIa and smooth muscle cell alpha(v) beta(3)) and quinapril (potent vascular ACE inhibitor) prevented neointima formation to about 70%, i.e. better than with any treatment separately.

US$29.90

PMID: 9490916


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