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Role of alloimmunity in clinical transplantation

, : Role of alloimmunity in clinical transplantation. Reviews in Immunogenetics 1(3): 309-322

HLA-specific humoral immunity, as a result of recipient allosensitization, induces hyperacute rejection of allogeneic kidney grafts. Cross-match tests are performed to avoid this complication. However, present techniques do not allow determination of HLA specificity of donor-reactive antibodies in the acute necro-donor situation. New methods are described and discussed in this communication as well as the alloantibody specificities which are of clinical importance. Alloantibodies not only mediate hyperacute rejection, but may also participate in the acute rejection of organ grafts. Clinical associations between early immunological complications, such as acute rejection, in heart, liver and kidney allografted patients and pre-transplantation humoral alloimmunity emphasize the need for proper determination of donor-specific humoral immunity prior to transplantation. Acute rejection episodes are associated with an increased risk of subsequent chronic rejection. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is also an important risk factor for chronic organ graft rejection as well as for chronic graft-versus-host (GvH) disease in bone marrow transplanted patients. CMV infection triggers autoantibody formation against CD13 in transplanted patients which, in turn, has been shown to be associated with the development of chronic GvH disease. Recently, alloactivation of immune reactivity in vitro was found to induce reactivation of latent CMV infection. We present here a hypothesis to explain the series of clinically associated events: acute rejection--CMV infection--chronic rejection.


PMID: 11256422

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