geoscience.net logo
+ Resolve Article
+ Follow Us
Follow on FacebookFollow on Facebook
Follow on TwitterFollow on Twitter

+ Translate
+ Subscribe to Site Feed
GeoScience Most Shared ContentMost Shared Content

Qualitative differences of divalent salts: multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis


, : Qualitative differences of divalent salts: multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis. Chemical Senses 30(9): 719-726

Sensations from salts of iron, calcium, magnesium, and zinc with different anions were studied using a sorting task and multidimensional scaling (MDS). Ten divalent salts were adjusted in concentrations such that the mean intensity ratings were approximately equal. Stimuli were sorted on the basis of similarity to minimize any semantic influence and were examined with and without nasal occlusion to eliminate retronasal cues. Compounds representing the four primary tastes and astringency were also sorted. Similarity estimates were derived from sorting and were submitted to MDS. Divalent salts fell outside the area of the space defined by the four primary tastes. The nose-open condition showed that some of the divalent salts have unique metallic sensations along with astringency. The groupings obtained were corroborated using single-linkage cluster analysis. An iron group was most distinctive in metallic sensations; calcium and magnesium salts were primarily bitter; and zinc salts were characterized by astringency. When nasal cues were not available, the sensations from the divalent salts were mainly explained by bitterness and astringency. Results were consistent with a previous evaluation of divalent salts using descriptive analysis.

US$19.90

PMID: 16221799

DOI: 10.1093/chemse/bji064


Other references

Eszter, E.; Lapis, K.; Szende, B.; Büky, B., 1978: Fine structure studies in the lungs of infants with idiopathic respiratory distress syndrome. Authors studied ultrathin cestions of lung of ten newborns died of IRDS in the various stage of the disease. It was established that lamellar bodies are already formed in the initial phase of the disease. In the first two clinical phases by pneumo...

Izyumova, NA., 1974: On the ligulosis of fishes in the Rybinskoe and Gor'kovskoe Reservoirs. Informatsionnyi Byull Inst Biol Vnutr Vod, 21: 55-60

Mussolin, C.; Noël, M-Pascale., 2007: The nonintentional processing of Arabic numbers in children. This paper aims at determining when magnitude is automatically activated from Arabic digits in children and whether this automatic activation depends on the number size of the stimuli considered. Second, third, and fourth graders performed a physi...

Robidoux, J.S.ndborn, E.; Fensom, D.; Cameron, M., 1973: Plasmatic filaments and particles in mature sieve elements of Heracleum sphondylium under the electron microscope. Journal of experimental botany: 24 (79) 349-359

Kawazura, Y.; Yoshida, Z., 2011: Entropy production rate in a flux-driven self-organizing system. Entropy production rate (EPR) is often effective to describe how a structure is self-organized in a nonequilibrium thermodynamic system. The "minimum EPR principle" is widely applicable to characterizing self-organized structures, but is...

Jacobs, M.R.; Anon, J.; Appelbaum, P.C., 2004: Mechanisms of resistance among respiratory tract pathogens. Antimicrobial resistance among respiratory tract pathogens represents a significant health care threat. Identifying the antimicrobial agents that remain effective in the presence of resistance, and knowing why, requires a thorough understanding of...

Newhall, W.J.; Batteiger, B.; Jones, R.B., 1982: Analysis of the human serological response to proteins of Chlamydia trachomatis. Sera from individuals with culture-proven genital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis were analyzed for the presence of antibodies to chlamydial proteins by an immunoelectrophoretic transfer method. Protein antigens from representative strains of...

Charmet, G., 1993: Geographically constrained clustering: a tool for establishing a core from a large collection of wild populations in forage grasses. A method of hierarchical clustering with a geographical contiguity constraint was applied to 226 French Lolium perenne populations evaluated for 10 agronomic traits in 1984-86 and 321 populations evaluated in 1985-87. Four of the traits were stabl...

Yamasita, I.; Suzuki, Y.; Kuroe, J.; Kumazawa, N.; Mukasa, T., 1990: Clinical studies on cancer of the tongue. Thirty-nine previously untreated patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue were treated by irradiation or a combination of irradiation and surgery, with or without chemotherapy, between January 1971 and December 1980. All of the patients...

Kovalik, M.; Wilkoek, P.; Szczepanik, M.; Pomorski, Z.; Kozak, M.; Kovalikowa, M., 2007: Cyclosporine - the new drug in treatment of canine atopic dermatitis. The pharmacotherapy of canine atopic dermatitis has relied primarily on the use of specific immunotherapy, glucocorticoids and antihistamines. During the last decade, oral cyclosporin A (CsA) in randomized controlled trials has proven to be effect...