geoscience.net logo
+ Resolve Article
+ Follow Us
Follow on FacebookFollow on Facebook
Follow on TwitterFollow on Twitter

+ Translate
+ Subscribe to Site Feed
GeoScience Most Shared ContentMost Shared Content

The cocaine-abused heart


, : The cocaine-abused heart. American Journal of Critical Care 12(6): 562-566

Recreational use of cocaine dates back to the Incas in South America 5000 years ago. Cocaine is derived from the leaves of Erythroxylon coca, a shrub native to South America. In the late 1800s, Sigmund Freud popularized the drug in Europe. He used cocaine to treat depression, asthma, cachexia, and for overcoming morphine addiction. Also in this period cocaine rapidly gained acceptance in surgical procedures as a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor. Cocaine reached the United States in the early 1900s, and its popularity led President Taft to declare it public enemy number one in 1910. Cocaine became popular again in the 1980s. Currently cocaine use is responsible for more ED visits then any of the other illicit drugs. Because most cocaine users are young, they are at a lower risk for coronary artery atherosclerotic disease. An estimated 25 million people between the ages of 26 and 34 years have used cocaine at least once, 20% were women and 30% men. Habitual users of cocaine are estimated to number 1.5 million. Most cocaine-induced chest pains do not progress to MI, and in fact many originate in the chest wall. The chest pains due to cocaine, however, are induced by myocardial ischemia, a result of vasospasm and not a thrombotic occlusion of a coronary artery that has a ruptured atheromatous plaque. ECG findings can be misleading in the diagnosis because the early repolarization syndrome, a normal variant, is a frequent finding in young African American men. Measurement of cardiac troponin levels is the most reliable diagnostic test. Percutaneous coronary intervention and angioplasty, rather than thrombolysis, is the treatment of choice because intense coronary vasospasm is the primary pathophysiology in cocaine-induced MI.

US$29.90

PMID: 14619364


Other references

McIlroy, James G., 2008: Prospect risking for stratigraphic traps. The South Oman Salt Basin, a prolific source of oil from carbonate stringers of Neoproterozoic-Early Cambrian age, contains many prospects. The stringers are unique in that they represent a self-contained petroleum system such that each stringer i...

Assi, Farkad, 1998: Effects of desertification in the Anti-Lebanon on the spider populations: I. Report on the Gnaphosidae Gnaphosinae (Aranae). The severe climate and presteppic vegetation profoundly affect the araneologic fauna found on the Anti-Lebanon mountain range of Lebanon. The Gnaphosidae collected allowed us to identify different species within the genera Pterotricha, Nomisia and...

Miyazaki, K.; Martin, J.C.; Marinsek-Logar, R.; Flint, H.J., 2006: Degradation and utilization of xylans by the rumen anaerobe Prevotella bryantii (formerly P. ruminicola subsp. brevis) B(1)4. Freshly harvested whole cells from cultures of P. bryantii B(1)4 grown with oat spelt xylan (OSX) as an energy source showed less than 25% of the enzyme activity against OSX, and less than 15% of the activity against birchwood xylan (BWX) and carb...

Neubauer, A.; Fiebeler, A.; Schmidt, C.A.; O'bryan, J.P.; Huhn, D.; Liu, E., 1992: Ax1, A novel receptor tyrosine kinase, is expressed preferentially in myeloid leukemias, interferon treated mononuclear cells, and normal human bone marrow. Annals of Hematology 65(SUPPL ): A98

Stadler E., 1977: Host selection and chemo reception in the carrot rust fly psila rosae diptera psilidae extraction and isolation of oviposition stimulants and their perception by the female. Labeyrie V (Ed ) Colloques Internationaux Du Centre National De La Recherche Scientifique, No 265 Comportement Des Insectes Et Milieu Trophique Tours, France, Sept 13-17, 1976 (International Colloquium Of The National Center For Scientific Research, No 265 Insect Behavior And Tropic Environments Tours, France Sept 13-17, 1976) 493p Illus Editions Du Cnrs: Paris, France Isbn 2-222-02056-5 357-372

McIntosh, A.H.; Ignoffo, C.M., 1982: Notes on a low-cost medium for growth of insect cell lines and replication of insect viruses. One of the hindrances to the commercial use of insect cell lines for producing preparations of viruses as insecticides was the cost of media for cell culturing. Notes are given on TC-199-MK, a medium that is probably the least expensive and has be...

Andreeva, N.A.; Kulakovskaya, T.V.; Kulaev, I.S., 2000: Inorganic polyphosphates and phosphohydrolases in Halobacterium salinarium. Halobacterium salinarium grown in a liquid medium consumed up to 75% of phosphates originally present in the growth medium and accumulated up to 100 mumol Pi/g wet biomass by the time it entered the growth retardation phase. The content of acid-so...

Sarkar, S.K.; Howarth, R.E.; Hikichi, M.; McArthur, J.M., 1975: Soluble proteins of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) herbage. Fractionation by ammonium sulfate and gel chromatography. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 23(4): 626-630

Turner M.R.J.; Mynett A.E.; van den Boogaard H.F.P., 2002: Feature extraction from satellite images for validating suspended sediment models. Coastal water quality models are becoming more detailed and capable of covering increasingly larger spatial areas. Examples are sediment transport models set up for the Dutch coast. Remotely sensed (satellite) data is now widely recognised for bei...

Shearer, R.F.; Saunders, D.N., 2016: Regulation of primary cilia formation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. NlmCategory="UNASSIGNED">Primary cilia form at the surface of most vertebrate cell types, where they are essential signalling antennae for signal transduction pathways important for development and cancer, including Hedgehog. The impo...