+ Resolve Article
+ Follow Us
Follow on FacebookFollow on Facebook
Follow on TwitterFollow on Twitter

+ Translate
+ Subscribe to Site Feed
GeoScience Most Shared ContentMost Shared Content

Availability, price and affordability of cardiovascular medicines: a comparison across 36 countries using WHO/HAI data

, : Availability, price and affordability of cardiovascular medicines: a comparison across 36 countries using WHO/HAI data. Bmc Cardiovascular Disorders 10(): 25-25

The global burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) continues to rise. Successful treatment of CVD requires adequate pharmaceutical management. The aim was to examine the availability, pricing and affordability of cardiovascular medicines in developing countries using the standardized data collected according to the World Health Organization/Health Action International methodology. The following medicines were included: atenolol, captopril, hydrochlorothiazide, losartan and nifedipine. Data from 36 countries were analyzed. Outcome measures were percentage availability, price ratios to international reference prices and number of day's wages needed by the lowest-paid unskilled government worker to purchase one month of chronic treatment. Patient prices were adjusted for inflation and purchasing power, procurement prices only for inflation. Data were analyzed for both generic and originator brand products and the public and private sector and summarized by World Bank Income Groups. For all measures, there was great variability across surveys. The overall availability of cardiovascular medicines was poor (mean 26.3% in public sector, 57.3% private sector). Procurement prices were very competitive in some countries, whereas others consistently paid high prices. Patient prices were generally substantially higher than international references prices; some countries, however, performed well. Chronic treatment with anti-hypertensive medication cost more than one day's wages in many cases. In particular when monotherapy is insufficient, treatment became unaffordable. The results of this study emphasize the need of focusing attention and financing on making chronic disease medicines accessible, in particular in the public sector. Several policy options are suggested to reach this goal.


PMID: 20534118

DOI: 10.1186/1471-2261-10-25

Other references

Tymchenko, O.H.; Seredenko, M.M.; Portnychenko, V.I.; Babko, S.O.; Velychko, M.I.; Tsvietkova, K.V., 1996: The physiological characteristics of the antioxidant properties of Lipin in bronchial asthma in children. In children of 4-7 years old with bronchial asthma (BA) has been studied the values of lipid peroxidation, antioxidant status and some others in blood plasma and erythrocytes without and with the use of new drug Lipin. It was shown that in childre...

Thompson, E.A.; Siiteri, P.K., 1973: Studies on the aromatization of C-19 androgens. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 212: 378-391

Carlquist S., 1989: Wood and bark anatomy of empetraceae comments on pedomorphosis in woods in certain small shrubs. Wood and bark of 12 collections of Empetraceae representing three genera contaiing seven species (one with two subspecies) are analyzed with respect to quantitative and qualitative features. Empetraceae have vessels somewhat angular in transection...

Ohrvall, M.; Tengblad, S.; Ekstrand, B.; Siegbahn, A.; Vessby, B., 1994: Malondialdehyde concentration in plasma is inversely correlated to the proportion of linoleic acid in serum lipoprotein lipids. It has been suggested that the susceptibility of low density lipoprotein (LDL) to oxidative stress depends on the balance between its contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants. In a healthy reference population (n = 103), the plasma...

Luger, A., 1978: Diagnosis and therapy of genital contact infections following Far East travel. Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift 128(17): 559-565

Saperstein, George, 1993: Clinical applications of an antibiotic susceptibility test for mastitis. Mastik (Lotek, Inc, Pomfret, (Connecticut, USA), formerly Mastassay (Pitman-Moore, Inc, Mundelein, Ill.), is a rapid quantitative antibiotic susceptibility test for mastitis caused by lactose-fermenting organisms. This test is compared to the disc...

Belfield, K.D.; Bondar, M.V.; Morales, A.R.; Yue, X.; Luchita, G.; Przhonska, O.V., 2012: Transient excited-state absorption and gain spectroscopy of a two-photon absorbing probe with efficient superfluorescent properties. The synthesis, linear photophysical properties, two-photon absorption (2PA), excited-state transient absorption, and gain spectroscopy of a new fluorene derivative tert-butyl 4,4'-(4,4' (1E,1'E)-2,2'-(9,9-bis(2- (2-ethoxyethoxy...

Diaz M.O.; Mckeithan T.W., 1991: Southern blotting of cytokine genes. Balkwill, F R (Ed ) Practical Approach Series: Cytokines: A Practical Approach Xxxi+349p Oxford University Press: Oxford, England, Uk; New York, New York, Usa Illus 17-30

Salmon, E.; Degueldre, C.; Franco, G.; Franck, G., 1996: Frontal lobe dementia presenting as personality disorder. The early differential diagnosis of frontal lobe dementia is particularly difficult because changes of personality or behaviour overwhelm intellectual and cognitive impairments. We report the case of a patient presenting with paranoid personality...

Bennett, A., 2000: Popular music and youth culture: music, identity and place. There were two objectives to this book: to consider the various ways in which youth culture and popular music have been theorized by sociologists, cultural and media theorists, and to bring a new perspective to some of the more recent work on yout...