+ Resolve Article
+ Follow Us
Follow on FacebookFollow on Facebook
Follow on TwitterFollow on Twitter

+ Translate
+ Subscribe to Site Feed
GeoScience Most Shared ContentMost Shared Content

Decrease in the effectiveness of Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine against pulmonary tuberculosis: a consequence of increased immune suppression by microbial antioxidants, not overattenuation

, : Decrease in the effectiveness of Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine against pulmonary tuberculosis: a consequence of increased immune suppression by microbial antioxidants, not overattenuation. Clinical Infectious Diseases 51(2): 177-184

Mutations that arose in bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) daughter strains during decades of in vitro cultivation have long been suspected of reducing the efficacy of the BCG vaccine against pulmonary tuberculosis. Although concern was raised 6 decades ago that BCG had become overattenuated, preferential use of relatively virulent BCG vaccines has not restored efficacy. The recent discovery that as BCG evolved its production of antioxidants increased as a consequence of genomic duplications and other mutations suggests the alternative hypothesis that BCG became better at suppressing oxidant-dependent immune responses. This new model of BCG evolution is supported by evidence indicating that reducing BCG antioxidants enhances immunogenicity. Furthermore, some previously unexplained aspects of the performance of the BCG vaccine in clinical trials now make sense in the context of the new model. Finally, the model suggests that the risk of developing pulmonary tuberculosis is influenced by the balance between host-generated oxidants and microbial antioxidants that activate and suppress, respectively, the antigen-presentation pathways that protect the lungs.


PMID: 20524854

DOI: 10.1086/653533

Other references

Fulcher, L.P.; Scherer, R.C.; Waddle, J.M., 2013: Phonation threshold pressure and the elastic shear modulus: comparison of two-mass model calculations with experiments. Ishizaka and Flanagan's classic two-mass model of vocal fold motion is applied to small oscillations where the equations become linear and the aerodynamic driving force is described by an effective stiffness. The solution of these equations i...

Palmer, G., 1985: The electron paramagnetic resonance of metalloproteins. Biochemical Society Transactions 13(3): 548-560

Lagonigro, F.; Morrone, G.; Nunziata, B., 1961: Considerations on 2 epidemic episodes of poliomyelitis occuring in the Real Casa Santa dell'Annunziata. La Pediatria 69: 1100-1112

Whitfield, F.B., 2003: Microbiologically derived off-flavours. This chapter describes the spoilage microorganisms and metabolites responsible for an off-flavour, as well as the conditions that favour the production of the offending compound. These organisms include bacteria (Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Alcal...

Nekrasov, V.V.; Zubova, L.S., 1984: Using Ethrel for speeding up tomato fruit ripening. Spraying the cv. Volgogradskii Skorospelyi-323 with Ethrel [ethephon] at 0.2 or 0.4% advanced fruit ripening under favourable weather conditions and increased the number of fruits that ripened from 61.2-66.7% in the control to 72.5-82.4%. The trea...

Vanarsdale, T.; Walter, B.; Van Arsdale, S.; Xhu, M.; Lai, M.C.; Mosialos, G.; Kieff, E.; Ware, C., 1995: TNF and lymphotoxin beta receptor signaling complexes are targeted by Epstein-Barr virus. 9TH INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF IMMUNOLOGY [Author] The 9th International Congress of Immunology : 311

de Bonis, M.; Epelbaum, C.; Féline, A.; Grize, J.B.; Hardy, P.; Somogyi, M., 1990: Formal thinking, logical-discursive operations and schizophrenia: experimental study of a clinical case. This study, based on a single case experimental design, examined logical reasoning in a schizophrenic meeting the DSM-III criteria. The quantitative assessment carried out by 32 psychiatrists on a rating scale for logical thinking disorders (nine...

Mikulicic, F., 2012: Blood in the stool is equal to colonoscopy in diagnosis of colorectal carcinomas. Praxis 101(13): 875-876

Bruns, W.T.; Connell, T.R.; Lacey, J.A.; Whisler, K.E., 1977: Test strip meconium screening for cystic fibrosis. The Boehringer-Mannheim Corporation (BMC) strip test is extremely reliable in indicating an albumin content above 20 mg/gm of dried meconium. All infants born during one year in 14 Milwaukee area hospitals were tested. Of 16,224 newborns, two were...

Brown, A.D., 1983: Halophilic prokaryotes. The physiology of salt tolerlant bacteria is discussed.