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Diffusion of chlorin-p6 across phosphatidyl choline liposome bilayer probed by second harmonic generation

, : Diffusion of chlorin-p6 across phosphatidyl choline liposome bilayer probed by second harmonic generation. Journal of Physical Chemistry. B 116(14): 4199-4205

We have investigated the diffusion of the photosensitizer Chlorin-p(6) (Cp(6)) across a egg lecithin lipid bilayer at different pH by the Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) method. Cp(6) has three ionizable carboxylic acid groups, and consequently, neutral and several ionic forms of Cp(6) are expected to be present in the pH range 3-8. The absorption spectra of Cp(6) get considerably modified in the presence of liposomes as the pH is decreased indicating that the drug liposome binding is pH dependent. The first pK(a) of interconversion (D-C) has been identified at pH ~7.0 by fluorescence measurement in an earlier work. In this work, the second pK(a) of interconversion (C-B) has been identified at pH ~4.8 by the hyper-Rayleigh scattering method. At acidic pH (3, 4, and 5), where species A, B, and C are dominant, the addition of liposomes to a Cp(6) solution generates an instantaneous rise (less than 1 s) in the second harmonic (SH) signal followed by decays whose time constants ranged from ten to hundreds of seconds. The instantaneous rise is attributed to the adsorption of Cp(6) to the outer lipid bilayer, and the decay is attributed to the diffusion of the neutral and charged (A and B) species of the drug. The observed fast and slow time constants for diffusion in the pH range 3-5 are attributed to the neutral (A) and ionic form (B) of Cp(6), respectively. At pH 6, the intensity of the generated SH signals on the addition of liposome reduced, and at physiological pH, it was too weak to be detected. These results are consistent with previous studies that show that the interaction between Cp(6) and egg-PC liposomes is pH dependent. At lower pH due to the presence of the hydrophobic species (A and B) of Cp(6), its interaction with liposomes is strong, and at higher pH, the abundance of the negatively charged hydrophilic species (C and D) decreases the interaction with the like charged liposomes. We have also studied the effect of increasing the bilayer rigidity by decreasing the temperature of the medium or by incorporating 50 mol % cholesterol in the lipid bilayer and observed that lowering of temperature has more profound effect on the diffusion rates. The characteristics of the SH signal changed significantly when liposomes incorporating 50 mol % cholesterol were used at a low (3 °C) temperature. Under these conditions, the SH signal consisted of an instantaneous (<1s) followed by a slower rise (10-90s), and then, it decayed on a much longer time scale. This slow rise of the SH signal at pH 3 and 4 may be attributed to the temperature dependent adsorption of the anionic species (B) of Cp(6) with the liposomes. Further investigations are required in order to understand clearly the pH dependent diffusion of this drug across lipid bilayers.


PMID: 22414064

DOI: 10.1021/jp205335z

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