geoscience.net logo
+ Resolve Article
+ Follow Us
Follow on FacebookFollow on Facebook
Follow on TwitterFollow on Twitter

+ Translate
+ Subscribe to Site Feed
GeoScience Most Shared ContentMost Shared Content

Effect size estimation: methods and examples


, : Effect size estimation: methods and examples. International Journal of Nursing Studies 49(8): 1039-1047

While the p-value will tell the reader a study's results are statistically significant, it does not provide any information about the practical or clinical importance of the findings. Furthermore, p-values are influenced by sample size. They are more likely to be significant when sample size is large and less likely if the sample is small. Effect size estimates, on the other hand, are not sensitive to sample size and provide information about the direction and strength of the relationship between variables (e.g., a treatment and an outcome). In addition to providing valuable clinical information about study findings, effect size estimates can provide a common metric to compare results across studies. Despite their usefulness, effect size estimates are often not reported as part of the research results. Consequently, effect sizes often have to be calculated based on summary and test statistics reported in research articles. This article provides the formulas utilized to directly calculate common effective size estimates using summary statistics reported in research studies, as well as methods to more indirectly estimate these effect sizes when basis summary statistics are not reported. In addition we present formulas to compute the corresponding confidence interval for each effect size.

US$19.90

PMID: 22377339

DOI: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2012.01.015


Other references

Mohan, K.S.; Pradhan, N.; Channabasavanna, S.M., 1983: A report of subclinical psychological deterioration (a type of alcoholic dementia). Alcoholics could present with various degrees of deterioration of cognitive functioning. The subclinical psychological deterioration had been one of the least recognized entities. This condition could be reversed or atleast arrested with treatment...

Shaffer, J.R.; Kammerer, C.M.; Reich, D.; McDonald, G.; Patterson, N.; Goodpaster, B.; Bauer, D.C.; Li, J.; Newman, A.B.; Cauley, J.A.; Harris, T.B.; Tylavsky, F.; Ferrell, R.E.; Zmuda, J.M., 2007: Genetic markers for ancestry are correlated with body composition traits in older African Americans. Individual-specific percent European ancestry was assessed in 1,277 African Americans. We found significant correlations between proportion of European ancestry and several musculoskeletal traits, indicating that admixture mapping may be a useful...

Luo, G.; Liu, H.; Lu, H., 2016: Glucagon-like peptide-1(GLP-1) receptor agonists: potential to reduce fracture risk in diabetic patients?. This review summarizes current knowledge about glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RA) and their effects on bone metabolism and fracture risk. Recent in vivo and in vitro experiments indicated that GLP-1 RA could improve bone metaboli...

Vries, J. de, 1973: Some aspects of cysticercosis (in cattle in the Netherlands). The findings on living and dead cysticerci recorded in 13773 cows are reported in continuation of a previous paper (see V.B.39, abst.1175). Living cysticerci were found in 1.64% and dead cysticerci in 7.5% of the animals. Of the 1041 animals in wh...

Dugal, B., 1997: Unexpected uptake of Tc99m DTPA by myocard in renography. Clinical Nephrology 47(4): 278-279

Pulvirenti, L.; Smith, D.; Koob, G., F., 1994: SDZ 208-911, an amino-ergoline with partial dopamine agonist properties, dose dependently increases cocaine self-administration in the rat. Brain dopamine neurotransmission appears to be an important component of the neural pathways involved in the maintenance of intravenous (IV) cocaine self-administration in rats. The effects of a novel partial dopamine agonist, SDZ 208-911, on intr...

Okano, K.; Matsuo, K., 1994: Winter-depression of photosynthesis in tea plants with special reference to cultivar and leaf age. Winter-depression of photosynthesis in overwintering leaves of tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) plants was investigated with special reference to cultivar and leaf age. Photosynthetic activity of the leaves was measured with an oxygen electr...

Wilson, P.D., 1950: Refrigerated bone in surgical procedures. British Medical Journal 1(4664): 1257-1257

Hagiwara, S., 1989: Mechanisms of human platelet aggregation and release reaction induced by influenza virus. Mechanisms of aggregation and release reactions of human platelets induced by non-hemolytic influenza virus were studied. The influenza virus (PR/8 strain) caused aggregation of platelets with ATP release in a dose-dependent manner over the range...

Aldinucci, D.; Lorenzon, D.; Cattaruzza, L.; Pinto, A.; Gloghini, A.; Carbone, A.; Colombatti, A., 2007: Expression of CCR5 receptors on Reed-Sternberg cells and Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines: involvement of CCL5/Rantes in tumor cell growth and microenvironmental interactions. The expression of CCL5/Rantes by Hodgkin (H) and Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells has been recently documented. In the present study we demonstrated that the CCL5 receptor (CCR5) is constitutively expressed by Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL)-derived cell lines (i....