+ Resolve Article
+ Follow Us
Follow on FacebookFollow on Facebook
Follow on TwitterFollow on Twitter

+ Translate
+ Subscribe to Site Feed
GeoScience Most Shared ContentMost Shared Content

Enuresis as a premorbid developmental marker of schizophrenia

, : Enuresis as a premorbid developmental marker of schizophrenia. Brain 131(Pt 9): 2489-2498

There is comparatively little information about premorbid maturational brain abnormalities in schizophrenia (SCZ). We investigated whether a history of childhood enuresis, a well-established marker of neurodevelopmental delay, is associated with SCZ and with measures of brain abnormalities also associated with SCZ. A Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) based history of enuresis, volumetric brain MRI scans and neuropsychological testing were obtained in patients with SCZ, their non-psychotic siblings (SIB) and non-psychiatric controls (NC). The subjects were 211 patients (79.6% male), 234 of their SIB (43.2% male) and 355 controls (39.2% male). Frequency of enuresis was compared across groups and correlated with cognitive measures. Total and regional brain volumes were determined using voxel-based morphometry on matched subsets of probands (n = 82) with or without enuresis (n = 16, n = 66, respectively) and controls (n = 102) with or without enuresis (n = 11, n = 91, respectively). Patients with SCZ had higher rates of childhood enuresis (21%) compared with SIB (11%; chi(2) = 6.42, P = 0.01) or controls (7%; chi(2) = 23.65, P < 0.0001) and relative risk for enuresis was increased in SIB (lambda(S) = 2.62). Patients with enuresis performed worse on two frontal lobe cognitive tests [Letter Fluency (t = 1.97, P = 0.05, df = 200) and Category Fluency (t = 2.15, P = 0.03, df = 200)] as compared with non-enuretic patients. Voxel-based morphometry analysis revealed grey matter volume reductions in several frontal regions (right BA 9, right BA 10 and bilateral BA 45) and right superior parietal cortex (BA 7) in patients with a history of enuresis as compared with non-enuretic patients (all t > 3.57, all P < 0.001). The high frequency of childhood enuresis associated with SCZ and abnormalities in prefrontal function and structure in patients with a childhood history of enuresis suggest that childhood enuresis may be a premorbid marker for neurodevelopmental abnormalities related to SCZ. These findings add to the evidence implicating prefrontal dysmaturation in this disorder, potentially related to genetic risk factors.


PMID: 18669483

DOI: 10.1093/brain/awn167

Other references

Ronquist, G., 2015: Prostasomes: Their Characterisation: Implications for Human Reproduction: Prostasomes and Human Reproduction. The prostate is a principal accessory genital gland that is vital for normal fertility. Epithelial cells lining the prostate acini release in a defined fashion (exocytosis) organellar nanosized structures named prostasomes. They are involved in th...

Anonymous, 1984: Eighty fifth birthday of the academician of the Lenin All-Union Agricultural Academy Baranov Pavel Aleksandrovich. Khimiia v sel'skom khoziaistve: ) 63

Leizorovicz, A.; Hummel, P.; Taylor, S.; Peyrieux, J.C.; Group, T.-European-Infarction-Study, 1993: Profile of patients at potential risk from beta-blockade after myocardial infarction: Evidence from the European Infarction Study. In the European Infarction Study (EIS), significantly more oxprenolol-treated patients (122) developed cardiorespiratory adverse reactions than placebo-treated patients (75). Of these unwanted effects, heart failure was the most frequent and had t...

Gilson, C.; Abelson, R.P., 1965: The Subjective Use Of Inductive Evidence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 2: 301-310

Anonymous, 2013: TLR4 Promotes Chemoresistance. Overexpression of Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) in human tumors often correlates with chemoresistance and metastasis. We found that TLR4 is overexpressed in the majority of clinical breast cancer samples and in 68% of the examined breast cancer line...

Slotnick E.A., 1968: Enz alkaline phosphatase as a measure of fetal maturity human pregnancy. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association 68(2): 180-186

Benito-Ruiz, Jús., 2003: Buttock implants for male chest enhancement. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 112(7): 1951-1951

Tung P.; Levin S.R.; Johnson D.G.; Pai G., 1988: Reciprocal relationships between the adenylate cyclase system and sodium potassium dependent atpase in isolated rat islets. Diabetes Research & Clinical Practice 5(SUPPL 1): S112

Fewtrell C.; Goetze A.; Metgaer H., 1981: Phosphorylation of the receptor for immuno globulin e on basophils. Journal of Supramolecular Structure & Cellular Biochemistry (SUPPL 5): 265

Escandón, A.S.; Zelener, N.; de la Torre, M.Pérez.; Soto, S., 2007: Molecular identification of new varieties of Nierembergia linariaefolia (Graham), a native Argentinean ornamental plant. Six Nierembergia linariaefolia clones were selected for ornamental traits during a native germplasm development program. For fingerprinting diagnosis, 13 anchored inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) primers and 6 amplified fragment length polymor...