+ Resolve Article
+ Follow Us
Follow on FacebookFollow on Facebook
Follow on TwitterFollow on Twitter

+ Translate
+ Subscribe to Site Feed
GeoScience Most Shared ContentMost Shared Content

Fluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy for in vivo imaging of epidermal reactions to two experimental irritants

, : Fluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy for in vivo imaging of epidermal reactions to two experimental irritants. Skin Research and Technology 14(4): 498-503

Fibre-optic fluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) is a novel non-invasive technique for in vivo imaging of skin. The cellular structure of the epidermis can be studied. A fluorophore, e.g. fluorescein sodium, is introduced by an intradermal injection or applied to the skin surface before scanning. Images are horizontal optical sections parallel to the skin surface. Fluorescence CLSM has hitherto not been applied to experimental contact dermatitis. The aim was to study the applicability of fluorescence CLSM for in situ imaging of irritant contact dermatitis reactions caused by established model irritants, e.g. sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) and pelargonic acid (PA). Twelve healthy individuals volunteered. The flexor aspect of the right and the left forearm was exposed to SLS in water and PA in isopropanol and occluded under Finn Chambers for 24 h. The reactions were rated clinically and, following epicutaneous and intra-dermal application of fluorescein sodium, studied by fluorescence CLSM, magnification x 1000. Both irritants disturbed the epidermal intercellular borders, which became blurred, thickened and variably altered. This was interpreted as being a result of chemical damage to cellular membranes. Cell borders might show a double contour as a result of inter-cellular oedema. PA might increase the size of individual keratinocytes interpreted as a result of intra-cellular disturbance with oedema. SLS-exposed sites showed clusters of keratinocytes with visible nuclei in the outer layers of the epidermis, e.g. a parakeratotic shift supposed to be due to increased cell proliferation elicited by SLS. The isopropanol vehicle and PA did not interfere with the CLSM imaging technique or the experimental procedures. SLS, being a detergent, however, modified the physico-chemical properties of the skin surface and both disturbed epicutaneous labelling with the flurophore and immersion oil coupling between the skin surface and the optical system. Thus, SLS was technically more difficult to study by CLSM than PA. This preliminary study demonstrated the applicability of fluorescence CLSM for a detailed study of experimental skin irritants in vivo. Essential findings were disturbed and widened cell borders, swelling of keratinocytes by PA and induction of a parakeratotic shift by SLS with clusters of keratinocytes holding nuclei in the epidermis. Fluorescence CLSM offers a unique opportunity to study the inter- and intracellular water compartments directly in the epidermis in situ and an opportunity to visualize cell proliferation manifested as parakeratosis. Fibre-optic fluorescence CLSM of irritant reactions is, however, technically more complicated than reflectance CLSM and may not be applicable to any irritant. SLS applied epicutaneously interacted with the skin surface and coupling to the microscope and was thus found to be more difficult to study technically than PA. PA dissolved in isopropanol is for technical reasons, and with SLS as alternative, considered the preferred model irritant.


PMID: 18937788

DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0846.2008.00323.x

Other references

Bouchery,, C., 1973: The raspberry mosaic disease in France: Experimental transmission by aphids and natural spreading. Annales de zoologie: Ecologie animale: (2) 247-253

Thomas, L.; Lee, M.K., 2005: Nasal fracture manipulation: a comparative study of general and local anaesthesia techniques. Clinical Otolaryngology 30(1): 77; Author Reply 77-77; Author Reply 77

Timóteo, R.Pessato.; Marques, L.Simões.; Bertoncello, D., 2011: Physiotherapy intervention promotes better quality of life for individuals with pemphigus. Pemphigus is an autoimmune disease characterized by bullae, in which its chronicity and clinical manifestations generate alterations in the quality of life. In Brazil, the disease prevails in the states of the Midwest and Southeast. The study aime...

Rudman, D.R.dman, I.; Mattson, D.; Nagraj, H.; Caindec, N.J.ckson, D., 1989: Fractures in the men of a Veterans Administration Nursing Home: Relation of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. The authors studied the incidence of bone fracture in middle-aged and elderly men living in nursing homes. Health status, types of medication, age, blood chemistries and vitamin D levels were measured. The emphasis of the study was to correlate vi...

Ruth-Sahd, L.A.; Beck, J.; McCall, C., 2010: Transformative learning during a nursing externship program: the reflections of senior nursing students. Many nursing students participate in summer extern programs to augment their clinical experience in school and ease the gap between education and the real world of nursing practice. The purpose of this descriptive, qualitative research study is to...

Makarenko, N.V.; Maĭdikov, I.L., 1992: Conference: "Individual human psychophysiologic features and professional activity" (November 13-15. 1991, Cherkassy). Fiziologiia Cheloveka 18(3): 172-174

Magistretti, P.J.; Morrison, J.H.; Shoemaker, W.J.; Bloom, F.E., 1983: Effect of 6-hydroxydopamine lesions on norepinephrine-induced [3H]glycogen hydrolysis in mouse cortical slices. The effects of norepinephrine (NE) on in vitro [3H]glycogenolysis were assessed in slices of cerebral cortex from mice whose cortical noradrenergic innervation had been severely reduced by intracisternal 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) injections. A su...

Obiechina, C.; Badger, D., 1982: Economic and environmental impacts of coal mining and reclamation in eastern Oklahoma Agricultural productivity before and after strip mining, cattle ranching aspects, models. Bulletin B Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station: 82 (763)

Bogousslavsky, J.; Van Melle, G.; Regli, F., 1989: Middle cerebral artery pial territory infarcts: a study of the Lausanne Stroke Registry. Using a standard protocol (Doppler ultrasonography, electrocardiography, brain computed tomography, and in selected cases angiography, echocardiography, and Holter monitoring) we studied the clinical characteristics and etiological factors in 380...

Hick, U., 1976: The first year in the new lemur house at Cologne Zoo. International Zoo Yb6: 141-145.