geoscience.net logo
+ Resolve Article
+ Follow Us
Follow on FacebookFollow on Facebook
Follow on TwitterFollow on Twitter

+ Translate
+ Subscribe to Site Feed
GeoScience Most Shared ContentMost Shared Content

Influences of mating group composition on the behavioral time-budget of male and female Alpine Ibex (Capra ibex) during the rut


, : Influences of mating group composition on the behavioral time-budget of male and female Alpine Ibex (Capra ibex) during the rut. Plos One 9(1): E86004-E86004

During the rut, polygynous ungulates gather in mixed groups of individuals of different sex and age. Group social composition, which may vary on a daily basis, is likely to have strong influences on individual's time-budget, with emerging properties at the group-level. To date, few studies have considered the influence of group composition on male and female behavioral time budget in mating groups. Focusing on a wild population of Alpine ibex, we investigated the influence of group composition (adult sex ratio, the proportion of dominant to subordinate males, and group size) on three behavioral axes obtained by Principal Components Analysis, describing male and female group time-budget. For both sexes, the first behavioral axis discerned a trade-off between grazing and standing/vigilance behavior. In females, group vigilance behavior increased with increasingly male-biased sex ratio, whereas in males, the effect of adult sex ratio on standing/vigilance behavior depended on the relative proportion of dominant males in the mating group. The second axis characterized courtship and male-male agonistic behavior in males, and moving and male-directed agonistic behavior in females. Mating group composition did not substantially influence this axis in males. However, moving and male-directed agonistic behavior increased at highly biased sex ratios (quadratic effect) in females. Finally, the third axis highlighted a trade-off between moving and lying behavior in males, and distinguished moving and female-female agonistic behavior from lying behavior in females. For males, those behaviors were influenced by a complex interaction between group size and adult sex ratio, whereas in females, moving and female-female agonistic behaviors increased in a quadratic fashion at highly biased sex ratios, and also increased with increasing group size. Our results reveal complex behavioral trade-offs depending on group composition in the Alpine ibex, and emphasize the importance of social factors in influencing behavioral time-budgets of wild ungulates during the rut.

US$19.90

PMID: 24416453

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0086004


Other references

Sabageh, D.; Odujoko, O.Olaniyi.; Komolafe, A.Oluwole., 2012: Right atrial myxoma as a possible cause of hemorrhagic stroke and sudden death. Right atrial myxomas are rare primary tumors of the heart. They may remain asymptomatic or eventually cause constitutional signs and symptoms. Less frequently, obstruction of the tricuspid valve occurs, resulting in exertional dyspnea, syncope, or...

Caplan, L.R., 2009: Stroke registries and the vertebro-basilar arterial circulation. European Journal of Neurology 16(9): 962-963

Staessen, J.A.; Fagard, R.; Thijs, L.; Celis, H.; Birkenhäger, W.H.; Bulpitt, C.J.; de Leeuw, P.W.; Fletcher, A.E.; Babarskiene, M.R.; Forette, F.; Kocemba, J.; Laks, T.; Leonetti, G.; Nachev, C.; Petrie, J.C.; Tuomilehto, J.; Vanhanen, H.; Webster, J.; Yodfat, Y.; Zanchetti, A., 1998: Subgroup and per-protocol analysis of the randomized European Trial on Isolated Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly. Background: In 1989, the European Working Party on High Blood Pressure in the Elderly started the double-blind, placebo-controlled, Systolic Hypertension in Europe Trial to test the hypothesis that antihypertensive drug treatment would reduce the...

Fairbairn T.I.J., 1990: The environment and development planning in small pacific island countries. Beller, W , P D'ayala And P Hein (Ed ) Man And The Biosphere Series, Vol 5 Sustainable Development And Environmental Management Of Small Islands Xvi+419p Parthenon Publishing Group, Inc : Park Ridge, New Jersey, Usa; Carnforth, England, Uk; United Nations Educational, Scientific And Cultural Organization (Unesco): Paris, France Illus Maps 259-266

Wishik, S.M., 1951: Report from the A.P.H.A. Committee on Child Health: a study of child health supervision. Pediatrics 8(4): 567-569

Uemura, Y.; Takahashi, S.; Senda, A.; Fukuda, K.; Saito, T.; Oftedal, O.T.; Urashima, T., 2008: Chemical characterization of milk oligosaccharides of a spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta). The Carnivora include the superfamilies Canoidea and Feloidea. In species of Canoidea other than Canidae, the milk contains only traces of lactose and much larger concentrations of oligosaccharides. In this study, the following oligosaccharides we...

Schulberg, H.C.; Block, M.R.; Madonia, M.J.; Rodriguez, E.; Scott, C.P.; Lave, J., 1995: Applicability of clinical pharmacotherapy guidelines for major depression in primary care settings. To determine whether guidelines established for pharmacologic treatment of major depression are feasible in primary care. Prospective cohort study. Ambulatory family health centers and internal medicine clinics. Ninety-one primary care patients me...

Biggs, D.C., 1977: Field studies of fishing feeding and digestion in siphonophores. The feeding and fishing behavior of siphonophores in their natural environment was observed by SCUBA diving at 171 stations in warm-water areas of the western North Atlantic Ocean. The fishing posture of a siphonophore is determined by its flotati...

Kleinman, J.E.; Karson, C.N.; Weinberger, D.R.; Freed, W.J.; Berman, K.F.; Wyatt, R.J., 1984: Eye-blinking and cerebral ventricular size in chronic schizophrenic patients. Spontaneous eye-blinking, a possible measure of central dopaminergic activity, was studied in 55 drug-free chronic schizophrenic patients subdivided by cerebral ventricular size. Blink rates were higher in schizophrenic patients than in normal con...

Minoda, Y.; Nakagawa, S.; Sugama, R.; Ikawa, T.; Noguchi, T.; Hirakawa, M.; Matsui, Y.; Nakamura, H., 2014: Decreased extension gap and valgus alignment after implantation of total knee prosthesis in primary varus knees. It was hypothesised that implantation of a total knee prosthesis may change the size and shape of the joint gap. To test this hypothesis, a tensor device was used which was specifically designed to reproduce the conditions before and after implant...