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Lipid disorders in type 1 diabetes

, : Lipid disorders in type 1 diabetes. Diabetes & Metabolism 35(5): 353-360

Patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) also present with lipid disorders. Quantitative abnormalities of lipoproteins are observed in T1D patients with poor glycaemic control (increased plasma triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein [LDL] cholesterol) or nephropathy (increased triglycerides and LDL cholesterol, low level of high density lipoprotein [HDL] cholesterol). In cases of T1D with optimal glycaemic control, plasma triglycerides and LDL cholesterol are normal or slightly decreased, while HDL cholesterol is normal or slightly increased. Several qualitative abnormalities of lipoproteins, which are potentially atherogenic, are observed in patients with T1D, even in those with good metabolic control. These abnormalities include increased cholesterol-to-triglyceride ratios within very low-density lipoprotein (VLDLs), increased triglycerides in LDLs and HDLs, compositional changes in the peripheral layer of lipoproteins, glycation of apolipoproteins, increased oxidation of LDLs and an increase in small, dense LDL particles. These qualitative changes in lipoproteins are likely to impair their function. In vitro, VLDLs and LDLs from patients with T1D induced abnormal responses in the cellular cholesterol metabolism of human macrophages. HDLs from patients with T1D are thought to be less effective in promoting cholesterol efflux from cells, and have been shown to have reduced antioxidative and vasorelaxant properties. These qualitative abnormalities are not fully explained by hyperglycaemia and may be partly due to peripheral hyperinsulinaemia associated with subcutaneous insulin administration. However, the precise consequences of these qualitative lipid changes on the development of cardiovascular disease in T1D are, as yet, unknown.


PMID: 19733492

DOI: 10.1016/j.diabet.2009.04.004

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