+ Resolve Article
+ Follow Us
Follow on FacebookFollow on Facebook
Follow on TwitterFollow on Twitter

+ Translate
+ Subscribe to Site Feed
GeoScience Most Shared ContentMost Shared Content

Lipid metabolism and cardiovascular risk in HIV infection: new perspectives and the role of nevirapine

, : Lipid metabolism and cardiovascular risk in HIV infection: new perspectives and the role of nevirapine. Aids Reviews 15(4): 195-203

Effective antiretroviral regimens allow patients to successfully manage their HIV infection for decades. Both HIV infection and treatment elevate the incidence and progression of cardiovascular disease, as evidenced by higher rates of myocardial infarction. Traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors, including elevated serum lipids, lipoprotein and triglyceride levels, hypertension, and smoking, may play a role. In addition, factors directly related to HIV infection (chronic inflammation and persistent immune activation due to viral replication) further elevate risk, while some antiretrovirals adversely affect serum lipids and promote inflammation. Recent epidemiological studies report that HIV-infection rates in patients aged 50 years or greater are rising. Since HIV patients experience decades of elevated cardiovascular disease risk, and many patients are infected later in life, older patients are generally at even greater cardiovascular disease risk. Treatment guidelines recommend antiretroviral regimen initiation soon after initial diagnosis, with continuous adherence to minimize long-term consequences of HIV infection. Also, appropriate selection when initiating or switching antiretroviral regimens can play a major role in managing cardiovascular disease risk. Antiretroviral drugs with favorable lipid profiles may help. Close adherence to the NCEP guidelines for managing hyperlipidemias and other cardiovascular risk factors further reduces cardiovascular disease risk. Recent awareness of other patient factors, such as the impact of vitamin D deficiencies on cardiovascular disease risk, especially in the HIV-infected population, raises important questions with regard to the potential benefits of vitamin D repletion via supplementation. Fortunately, these and other important cardiovascular disease risk management questions designed to improve patient care are currently being addressed in large, well-controlled clinical trials.


PMID: 24192600

Other references

Maclaren, J., 1999: Promoting health Challenges within the population with breast cancer related lymphoedema. European Journal of Cancer 35(SUPPL 4): S31, Sept

Tilton, W.M.; Seaman, C.; Piomelli, S., 1993: Measurement of radiolabeled lactate production using lactate monooxygenase. The activity of cytosolic calcium-dependent neutral protease (calpain) is commonly measured using casein as a substrate. A novel, modified caseinolysis assay is now developed. It involves incubation of calpain with substrate casein, followed by re...

Sandhu D.K.; Vilkhu K.S.; Soni S.K., 1987: Production of alpha amylase by saccharomycopsis fibuligera synonym endomycopsis fibuligera. Seven different yeasts, Candida tropicalis, Hansenula anomala, Lipomyces sp., Pichia membranaefaciens, Saccharomycopsis fibuligera, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Trichosporon pullulans were screened for amylolytic activity during a study of some ce...

Havelka, J., 1971: Natural water management and the relation between water pollution and fish diseases. The weakened condition of fish in inorganically polluted water renders them more susceptible to intestinal parasitism, especially by Crepidostomum farionis, Nematoda and Acanthocephala.

Mlynarcík, D.; Lacko, I.; Devínsky, F., 1979: Antimicrobial effect of bis-quaternary ammonium salts derived from 1,3-propanediamine. Antimicrobial activity of bis-quaternary ammonium salts derived from 1,3-propanediamine and 1,3-diamino-2-propanol is described. Effect of the length of alkyl chain and the substitution in the connecting chain on this activity was studied.

Iannone, D.; L.G.Asta, R., 1958: Recent notes on combined CAF and prednisone therapy of typhoid infection. Gazzetta Medica Italiana 117(6): 241-243

Bond, S.E.; Boutlis, C.S.; Jansen, S.G.; Miyakis, S., 2016: Discontinuation of peri-operative gentamicin use for indwelling urinary catheter manipulation in orthopaedic surgery. Gentamicin has historically been used prior to insertion and removal of indwelling urinary catheters (IDCs) around elective joint replacement surgery to prevent infection; however, this indication is not recognized in the Australian Therapeutic Gu...

Holt, R.I.; Broide, E.; Buchanan, C.R.; Miell, J.P.; Baker, A.J.; Mowat, A.P.; Mieli-Vergani, G., 1997: Orthotopic liver transplantation reverses the adverse nutritional changes of end-stage liver disease in children. The changes in growth and body composition after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) were studied in 61 children [median age at OLT 3.49 y (range: 0.04-14.5 y), 26 boys and 35 girls] who had survived greater than or equal to 1 y post-OLT. Heigh...

Howe, P.R.; Rogers, P.F.; Smith, R.M., 1989: Antihypertensive effect of alcohol in spontaneously hypertensive rats. The influence of ethanol (alcohol) consumption on blood pressure during and after the development of hypertension was examined by using spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and stroke-prone SHR (SHRSP). Normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were a...

Carson, J.W., 2006: Loving-kindness meditation findings not related to baseline differences. Journal of Holistic Nursing 24(1): 5-6