+ Resolve Article
+ Follow Us
Follow on FacebookFollow on Facebook
Follow on TwitterFollow on Twitter

+ Translate
+ Subscribe to Site Feed
GeoScience Most Shared ContentMost Shared Content

Optimal methods for staging rectal cancer

, : Optimal methods for staging rectal cancer. Clinical Cancer Research 13(22 Pt 2): 6877s-6884s

At present, several modalities exist for the preoperative staging of rectal lesions, including computed tomography (CT), body coil or endorectal coil magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) done by rigid or flexible probes, and positron emission tomography (PET). Staging accuracy for CT ranges from 53% to 94% for T-stage accuracy and from 54% to 70% for N-stage accuracy. Improved CT accuracy is observed at higher disease stages. Body coil MRI has shown T- and N-stage accuracy ranging from 59% to 95% and 39% to 95%, respectively. Endorectal coil MRI has shown improved T- and N-stage accuracy, with rates of 66% to 91% and 72% to 79%, respectively. The development of phased-array MRI, combining high spatial resolution with a larger field of view, offers promise to improve on these rates. EUS, considered the current gold standard, has shown T-stage accuracy ranging from 75% to 95%, with N-stage accuracy ranging from 65% to 80%. Flexible EUS probes have the advantage of being able to access and sample iliac nodes. Recent studies also suggest that three-dimensional EUS may provide greater accuracy than conventional two-dimensional EUS. Limited studies exist on the use of PET in primary tumor staging. PET may upstage disease in 8% to 24% of patients and has also been used in posttreatment restaging and surveillance. Postradiation edema, necrosis, and fibrosis seem to decrease restaging accuracy in all modalities. This article reviews the current literature about the staging accuracy of the various modalities and suggests a staging algorithm for rectal cancer.


PMID: 18006793

DOI: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-07-1137

Other references

Pereira L.G.; Campos A.B.A.; Ribeiro M.L.; Sola A.R.; Moreira M., 1998: Tectonic model for the Nisa eruptive complex, Alto Alentejo, Portugal. The Nisa Eruptive Complex is interpreted as a igneous intrusive core installed by a pull-apart mechanism related to the last Hercynian regional deformation.

Buisson, J.F., 1973: Treatment of schizophrenic states with a new long-acting tranquilizer. Annales Medico-Psychologiques 2(2): 287-293

Tamaki, T.; Oura, S., 2007: Sentinel lymph node biopsy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer. Nihon Rinsho. Japanese Journal of Clinical Medicine 65 Suppl 6: 198-201

Narbone, M.Carola.; Gangemi, S.; Abbate, M., 2008: Migraine and stroke: from a questioned relationship to a supported comorbidity. Migraine and stroke are two common and prevalent diseases. The relationship between them is an ongoing, intriguing matter of debate. About 40 years ago, some different reports on this topic raised the question of the existence of a relationship b...

Barbero-Álvarez, Jéc.; Boullosa, D.A.; Nakamura, Fábio.Y.; Andrín, Gán.; Castagna, C., 2012: Physical and physiological demands of field and assistant soccer referees during America's cup. The aim of this study was to examine the physical and physiological demands of top-class soccer field (FR; n = 7) and assistant (AR; n = 7) referees during America's Cup. The FR and AR were equipped with a global positioning system (GPS) and...

Yang Y K.; Lee S.Y.; Choi K C., 1986: Rheological characteristics of germinated corn starch. Rheological characteristics of starch isolated from germinted corn were investigated and compared with those of nongerminated corn starch. Flow behavior of both starches were Bingham psudoplastic. Consistency index and yield stress of germinated s...

Davis, S., 1990: Effectiveness of a winged subsoiler in ameliorating a compacted clayey forest soil. Soil compaction was determined following machine brush-piling and subsequent tilling with a winged subsoiler, on Jory series soils, typically >3 ft deep, near Cottage Grove, Oregon, USA, following clearcutting of 170-year-old Douglas fir (Pseud...

Wainwright, J., 1961: Cirrhosis in the African in Natal. The commonest form of cirrhosis in the African in Natal is a pigmentary cirrhosis accounting for roughly 70% of the total cases. The earlier stages of this lesion are apparently in up to 40% of noncirrhotic adult male livers. In African female cir...

Schlein, H.N.; Laliberte, B.R., 1965: Process for preparing radiation stabilized polyethylene and food package utilizing same. The addition of 0.1-5.0% (by wt.) of 2, 2'-methylenebis-(4-ethyl-6-t-butyl-phenol) to polyethylene is claimed to stabilize the latter against possible undesirable odour formation when foods wrapped in such film are exposed to high energy ioni...

Navas, Longinos, 1931: Comunicaciones ento-mologicas 13 et 14 Insectos de la India 3a serie et 4a serie. In part 13 are Indian records of. Odonata: 8 Libel-lulidae; 8 Agrionidae; 4 Lestidae; 10 Coenagrionidae. Neuroptera: 4 Ascalaphidae; 10 Myrmeleonidae, including Palpares nobilis* (p. 77), Cueta levis* (p. 79), Salvaza lebasinus* (p. 80), and Dolic...