+ Resolve Article
+ Follow Us
Follow on FacebookFollow on Facebook
Follow on TwitterFollow on Twitter

+ Translate
+ Subscribe to Site Feed
GeoScience Most Shared ContentMost Shared Content

Plastic synaptic networks of the amygdala for the acquisition, expression, and extinction of conditioned fear

, : Plastic synaptic networks of the amygdala for the acquisition, expression, and extinction of conditioned fear. Physiological Reviews 90(2): 419-463

The last 10 years have witnessed a surge of interest for the mechanisms underlying the acquisition and extinction of classically conditioned fear responses. In part, this results from the realization that abnormalities in fear learning mechanisms likely participate in the development and/or maintenance of human anxiety disorders. The simplicity and robustness of this learning paradigm, coupled with the fact that the underlying circuitry is evolutionarily well conserved, make it an ideal model to study the basic biology of memory and identify genetic factors and neuronal systems that regulate the normal and pathological expressions of learned fear. Critical advances have been made in determining how modified neuronal functions upon fear acquisition become stabilized during fear memory consolidation and how these processes are controlled in the course of fear memory extinction. With these advances came the realization that activity in remote neuronal networks must be coordinated for these events to take place. In this paper, we review these mechanisms of coordinated network activity and the molecular cascades leading to enduring fear memory, and allowing for their extinction. We will focus on Pavlovian fear conditioning as a model and the amygdala as a key component for the acquisition and extinction of fear responses.


PMID: 20393190

DOI: 10.1152/physrev.00037.2009

Other references

Salvadori, J.R.; Corseuil, E., 1982: Leaf consumption and notes on the development of Anticarsia gemmatalis Hubner, 1818, on soyabean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). Anticarsia gemmatalis Hb. was reared in the laboratory in Brazil on potted soyabean plants at about 25 deg C, 65% RH and LD 14:10. Under these conditions, the egg, larval, prepupal and pupal stages averaged 3, 11.38, 2.05 and 10.3 days, respective...

Adolphs, Ralph, 1999: The human amygdala and emotion. Neuroscientist 5(2): 125-137, March

Causley, F., 1991: Oklahoma agriculture and weather: integral pieces of life in a land of extremes. Agriculture at OSU Oklahoma State University Agricultural Experiment Station Winter 21(3): 1-4

Weissenboeck, G.; Plesser, A.; Trinks, K., 1976: Flavonoid content and enzyme activities of isolated oat chloroplasts avena sativa. Significant amounts of the oat C-glycosylflavones F1, F2, F3 and F5 were located within purified intact chloroplasts isolated from 5 and 6 day old primary leaves grown under standard conditions. Comparable results but with higher flavonoid content...

Quitschke W.; Jones P.S.; Schechter N., 1985: Survey of intermediate filament proteins in optic nerve and spinal cord evidence for differential expression. The distribution of intermediate filament proteins in optic nerve and spinal cord from rat, hamster, goldfish, frog and newt were analyzed by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis. General as well as specific monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies were...

Vita N.; Etcheverrigaray M.; Biscayart P.L.; Retegui L.A., 1986: Relative distribution of various antigenic determinants on the human growth hormone surface. The relative distribution of 12 antigenic determinants on the surface of the human growth hormone (hGH) molecule has been established. The necessary information was obtained by testing the ability of paired monoclonal antibodies (MAb) to bind simu...

Kim, K-Rae.; Owens, G., 2010: Chemodynamics of heavy metals in long-term contaminated soils: metal speciation in soil solution. The concentration and speciation of heavy metals in soil solution isolated from long-term contaminated soils were investigated. The soil solution was extracted at 70% maximum water holding capacity (MWHC) after equilibration for 24 h. The free met...

Probst, T.; Jakob, M.; Kaufmann, Y.M.; Müller-Neng, J.M.B.; Bohus, M.; Weck, F., 2017: Patients' and therapists' experiences of general change mechanisms during bug-in-the-eye and delayed video-based supervised cognitive-behavioral therapy. A randomized controlled trial. This secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial investigated whether bug-in-the-eye (BITE) supervision (live computer-based supervision during a psychotherapy session) affects the manner in which patients and therapists experience general...

Sousa P.R.; Saito S.; Magalhaes A.F.N.; Watanabe A., 1992: New aspects in gastroenterology about interrelationship between physician and patient japanese brazilian cooperative experience. Gastroenterology 102(4 PART 2): A27

Conkling, A.L.; Fagin, B.; Daye, R.Mark., 2010: Comparison of tibial plateau angle changes after tibial plateau leveling osteotomy fixation with conventional or locking screw technology. To compare the effects of locking and conventional screws on postoperative tibial plateau angle (TPA), osteotomy healing, and complication rate after tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) in dogs treated for naturally occurring cranial cruciate...