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Recent advances in the monitoring and control of haemodynamic variables during haemodialysis: a review

, : Recent advances in the monitoring and control of haemodynamic variables during haemodialysis: a review. Physiological Measurement 33(1): R1-R31

The human body possesses a unique set of organs that are responsible for providing homeostatic balance to the body's fluids. Of these, the kidneys regulate fluid and electrolyte balance in order to maintain the intracellular and extracellular fluid volumes and ion composition within tight limits. When kidneys fail to function normally, fluid is retained and several ions and solutes accumulate. The consequences may be life threatening. Many kidney failure patients rely on haemodialysis (HD) as a life sustaining therapy to remove the waste products and excess fluid from the circulating blood. HD is based on the principle of diffusion of solutes and ultrafiltration of fluid across a semi-permeable membrane. Fluid removal during HD results in relative hypovolaemia during which the stability of a patient relies on compensatory mechanisms to maintain blood pressure (BP). The major compensatory mechanisms include sympathetic nervous system activation of peripheral vasoconstriction together with modest heart rate acceleration to ensure the haemodynamic stability of the patient. Over the years, many monitoring tools have been developed in the hope of predicting intra-dialytic hypotensive episodes. Similarly many methods have been utilized to prevent dialysis-induced complications: ultrafiltration and dialysate sodium profiling, varying ultrafiltration based on frequent BP measurements, etc. This paper provides a comprehensive review of those monitoring and control tools. It starts with a brief introduction to human kidneys and dialysis for non-specialized readers. The paper then reviews the monitoring tools that have been applied to assess the physiological response of patients during HD. This is followed by control techniques used to prevent dialysis-induced complications.


PMID: 22155986

DOI: 10.1088/0967-3334/33/1/R1

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