geoscience.net logo
+ Resolve Article
+ Follow Us
Follow on FacebookFollow on Facebook
Follow on TwitterFollow on Twitter

+ Translate
+ Subscribe to Site Feed
GeoScience Most Shared ContentMost Shared Content

Schirmer tear test type I readings and intraocular pressure values assessed by applanation tonometry (Tonopen® XL) in normal eyes of four European species of birds of prey


, : Schirmer tear test type I readings and intraocular pressure values assessed by applanation tonometry (Tonopen® XL) in normal eyes of four European species of birds of prey. Veterinary Ophthalmology 16(5): 365-369

To determine normal values for Schirmer tear test I and intraocular pressure in four European species of birds of prey. Twenty birds from each of the following species: Eurasian Tawny owl (Strix aluco), Little owl (Athene noctua), Common buzzard (Buteo buteo), and European kestrel (Falco tinnunculus). Both eyes of all birds (80 eyes) underwent a complete ophthalmic examination, which included a Schirmer tear test type I (STT-I) performed with commercially available strips and the assessment of the intraocular pressure (IOP) by applanation tonometry, employing the Tonopen-XL(®) device. The animals, which had been taken to a rescue center, were examined for ocular lesions prior to their eventual release into the wild. STT-I readings and IOP values were expressed as means ± standard deviation. Schirmer tear test type I readings were as follows: Eurasian Tawny owls: 3.12 ± 1.92 mm/min; Little owls: 3.5 ± 1.96 mm/min; Common buzzards: 12.47 ± 2.66 mm/min; European kestrels: 6.20 ± 3.67 mm/min. IOP values were as follows: Eurasian Tawny owls: 11.21 ± 3.12 mmHg; Little owls: 9.83 ± 3.41 mmHg; Common buzzards: 17.2 ± 3.53 mmHg; European kestrels: 8.53 ± 1.59 mmHg. The results of this study give representative values for STT-I and IOP in four of the most common species of birds of prey in Europe.

US$19.90

PMID: 23173951

DOI: 10.1111/vop.12008


Other references

Russo, A.; Marino, M., 1952: Nicotinamide in experimental asthmatic seizure. Clinica Nuova; Rassegna del Progresso Medico Internazionale 14(11-13): 349-354

Michailidis Kleopas M., 1998: Tourmaline concentrations in metasedimentary rocks of the Efkarpia-Gerakario area in Macedonia, northern Greece. Chemie der Erde 58(1-2): 80-97

Ewald, W., 1982: Etwas zum Vorzeigen: Kirschfiecksalmler. Aquarien Magazin, 162: 88-90

Czuczwar, S.; Gasior, M.; Kaminski, R.; Kleinork, Z.; Kozicka, M.; Ossowska, G.; Pietrasiewicz, T., 1998: GYKI 52466 -4-methoxy-7,8-methylenedioxy-5H-2,3-benzodiazepine hydrochloride and the anticonvulsive activity of conventional antiepileptics against pentetrazol in mice. Excitatory amino acids participate in the generation of seizure activity. Consequently, the effects of GYKI 52466 (1-(4-aminophenyl)-4-methoxy-7,8-methylenedioxy-5H-2,3-benzodiazepine hydrochloride), an antagonist of glutamate-mediated events, on...

Gani, P.; Sunar, N.Mohamed.; Matias-Peralta, H.; Mohamed, R.Maya.Saphira.Radin.; Latiff, A.Aziz.Abdul.; Parjo, U.Kalthsom., 2017: Extraction of hydrocarbons from freshwater green microalgae (Botryococcus sp.) biomass after phycoremediation of domestic wastewater. This study was undertaken to analyze the efficiency of Botryococcus sp. in the phycoremediation of domestic wastewater and to determine the variety of hydrocarbons derived from microalgal oil after phycoremediation. The study showed a significant...

Sikes, D.S.; Madge, R.B.; Trumbo, S.T., 2006: Revision of Nicrophorus in part: new species and inferred phylogeny of the nepalensis-group based on evidence from morphology and mitochondrial DNA (Coleoptera: Silphidae: Nicrophorinae). Carrion beetles of the genus Nicrophorus Fabricius, 1775 (Silphidae) are well known for their biparental brood care and monopolisation of small vertebrate carcasses in subterranean crypts. Although the taxonomy of New World species has received mo...

Wiederholm A M., 1987: Distribution of pomatoschistus minutus and pomatoschistus microps gobiidae pisces in the bothnian sea finland and sweden importance of salinity and temperature. The sand goby, Pomatoschistus minutus (Pallas), and the common goby, P. microps (Kroyer), coexist along the west coast and part of the east coast of Sweden. Only the sand goby occurs in abundance in the northernmost parts of the Bothnian Sea and i...

Yoshida, T.; Ono, M.; Muraoka, N., 1991: Sonographic diagnosis of nonmalignant extrahepatic portal venous obstruction--incidence and background. We diagnosed nine cases of nonmalignant extrahepatic portal venous obstruction on ultrasonography at Kitakyushu Municipal Kokura Hospital between 1983 and 1989. Among 40544 cases of routine abdominal ultrasound study, nine cases of nonmalignant ex...

Yefimova, A.V.; Yevstifeyev, M.M.; Semenov, A.D., 2005: Anionic synthetic surfactants in Azov Sea's water. Methods and results of the study. Methods for determination of anionic surfactants in marine waters have been considered. Photometric method by azur has been improved. Results of anionic surfactants monitoring in Azov Sea's water in 2000-2002 years have been presented.

Qi, Y.; Liu, G.; Hou, C.Yan.; Wang, D.Mei., 2008: The generation of H2O2 in wheat hypersensitive reaction induced by leaf rust fungus. H2O2 burst in the defense responses of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) infected with compatible and incompatible leaf rust fungus races (Puccinia recondita f.sp. tritici) was investigated firstly. Cytofluorimetric analysis using the fluorescent probe...