geoscience.net logo
+ Resolve Article
+ Follow Us
Follow on FacebookFollow on Facebook
Follow on TwitterFollow on Twitter

+ Translate
+ Subscribe to Site Feed
GeoScience Most Shared ContentMost Shared Content

The current state of breast cancer classification


, : The current state of breast cancer classification. Annals of Oncology 23 Suppl 10: X207-X210

Breast cancer is a highly heterogeneous disease due to its diverse morphological features, the variable clinical outcome and the response to different therapeutic options. It is therefore necessary to devise a clinically meaningful classification of the disease, which has to be scientifically sound, clinically useful and widely reproducible. The established histopathological classification has a limited clinical utility, due to insufficient prognostic and predictive power. More recent classification schemes, based on the immunohistochemical characterization of breast cancer for the assessment of hormone receptor status, HER2 gene over-expression or amplification and the proliferative fraction or on gene expression profiles, correlate much better with the clinical outcome and may be used to inform the choice of the systemic therapy.

US$19.90

PMID: 22987963

DOI: 10.1093/annonc/mds326


Other references

D.G.Ey.J.M.; D.M.Raes.L.F., 1956: About stomach cancer and gastric ulcer. Revista Brasileira de Cirurgia 32(1): 91-100

Clark, F.C.; Lange, K.O.; Belleville, R.E., 1974: Behavioral effects of artificial gravity: equivalence of rotation rate and radius in controlling gravity-avoidance behavior. Aerospace Medicine 45(11): 1261-1266

Yu, Y.Estella.; Khodaparast, S.; Stone, H.A., 2017: Armoring confined bubbles in the flow of colloidal suspensions. We study the process of coating the interface of a long gas bubble, which is translating in a horizontal circular capillary tube filled with a colloidal suspension. A typical elongated confined bubble is comprised of three distinct regions: a sphe...

Anoje, C.; Aiyenigba, B.; Suzuki, C.; Badru, T.; Akpoigbe, K.; Odo, M.; Odafe, S.; Adedokun, O.; Torpey, K.; Chabikuli, O.N., 2012: Reducing mother-to-child transmission of HIV: findings from an early infant diagnosis program in south-south region of Nigeria. Early diagnosis of HIV in infants provides a critical opportunity to strengthen follow-up of HIV-exposed children and assure early access to antiretroviral (ARV) treatment for infected children. This study describes findings from an Early Infant D...

Beukema J.J.; Knol E.; Cadee G.C., 1985: Effects of temperature on the length of the annual growing season in the tellinid bivalve macoma balthica living on tidal flats in the dutch wadden sea. Frequent inspection of the shell margins during a 15-yr study of tidal flat populations of M. balthica (L.) in the western part of the Wadden sea revealed that the annual growing season starts earlier (early March compared with late March) if prec...

Hudak, D.A.; Dale, J.A.; Hudak, M.A.; DeGood, D.E., 1991: Effects of humorous stimuli and sense of humor on discomfort. The effects of humor on increasing discomfort thresholds were tested with Transcutaneous End Nerve Stimulation (TENS). Undergraduate students (n = 31) with high or low scores of Martin and Lefcourt's Situational Humor Questionnaire were rando...

Houck K.A.; Michalopoulos G.K., 1988: Norepinephrine modulates the growth inhibitory effects of tgf beta in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 29: 54

Petheo, Gábor.L.; Demaurex, N., 2005: Voltage- and NADPH-dependence of electron currents generated by the phagocytic NADPH oxidase. The phagocytic NADPH oxidase generates superoxide by transferring electrons from cytosolic NADPH to extracellular O-2. The activity of the oxidase at the plasma membrane can be measured as electron current (I-e), and the voltage dependence of I-e...

Rhodes, R.; Burrows, L.; Reisman, L., 1991: Mt. St. Anonymous; the adolescent living-related donor. Seventeen-year-old David is a perfect organ match for his younger brother, Ken, who has kidney failure. David understands that the procedure presents some risk for him and that after surgery he may no longer be able to continue playing football. H...

Heeschen, C.; Hamm, C.W.; Bruemmer, J.; Simoons, M.L., 1999: C-Reactive protein and Troponin T independently predict morality in patients with unstable angina Results from the CAPTURE trial. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 33(2 SUPPL A): 397A-398A, Feb