geoscience.net logo
+ Resolve Article
+ Follow Us
Follow on FacebookFollow on Facebook
Follow on TwitterFollow on Twitter

+ Translate
+ Subscribe to Site Feed
GeoScience Most Shared ContentMost Shared Content

The effect of five smoking cessation pharmacotherapies on smoking cessation milestones


, : The effect of five smoking cessation pharmacotherapies on smoking cessation milestones. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 79(1): 34-42

Most smoking cessation studies have used long-term abstinence as their primary outcome measure. Recent research has suggested that long-term abstinence may be an insensitive index of important smoking cessation mechanisms. The goal of the current study was to examine the effects of 5 smoking cessation pharmacotherapies using Shiffman et al.'s (2006) approach of examining the effect of smoking cessation medications on 3 process markers of cessation or smoking cessation milestones: initial abstinence, lapse, and the lapse-relapse transition. The current study (N = 1,504; 58.2% female and 41.8% male; 83.9% Caucasian, 13.6% African American, 2.5% other races) examined the effect of 5 smoking cessation pharmacotherapy treatments versus placebo (bupropion, nicotine lozenge, nicotine patch, bupropion + lozenge, patch + lozenge) on Shiffman et al.'s smoking cessation milestones over 8 weeks following a quit attempt. Results show that all 5 medication conditions decreased rates of failure to achieve initial abstinence and most (with the exception of the nicotine lozenge) decreased lapse risk; however, only the nicotine patch and bupropion + lozenge conditions affected the lapse-relapse transition. These findings demonstrate that medications are effective at aiding initial abstinence and decreasing lapse risk but that they generally do not decrease relapse risk following a lapse. The analysis of cessation milestones sheds light on important impediments to long-term smoking abstinence, suggests potential mechanisms of action of smoking cessation pharmacotherapies, and identifies targets for future treatment development.

US$19.90

PMID: 21261432

DOI: 10.1037/a0022154


Other references

Rodríguez, E.M.; L.P.inte, J., 1970: Light and electron microscopic study of the pars intermedia of the lizard, Klauberina riversiana. Zeitschrift für Zellforschung und Mikroskopische Anatomie 104(1): 1-13

Vidaud, J., 1971: First steps towards the mechanical harvesting of strawberries in the USA. Two experimental machines are described. The "Strepper" harvests strawberries by a series of rotating combs; and a conveyor belt and lift carry the fruit to baskets in the upper part of the machine. The foliage is removed before harvesti...

Gelderman, K.A.; Hakulinen, J.; Hagenaars, M.; Kuppen, P.J.K.; Meri, S.; Gorter, A., 2003: Membrane-bound complement regulatory proteins inhibit complement activation by an immunotherapeutic mAb in a syngeneic rat colorectal cancer model. MAb-mediated immunotherapy offers a potential tool for destroying metastasizing colorectal tumor cells. Promising results have been obtained by using xenograft models. However, overexpression of membrane-bound complement regulatory proteins (mCRP)...

Kunta, J.; Yan, J.; Makhey, V.D.; Sinko, P.J., 2000: Active efflux kinetics of etoposide from rabbit small intestine and colon. The aim of the present study was to investigate the directional transport kinetics of etoposide in rabbit intestinal tissues using side-by-side diffusion chambers. Etoposide is a routinely used mixed-mechanism 'efflux' inhibitor; however...

Anonymous, 2004: The Oresje Laramian structure in the NE part of Medvednica Mt. (Croatia). Structural features of Upper Triassic and Upper Cretaceous carbonate rocks of the Donje Oresje quarry were formed by tectonic deformation in temporally separated deformational events. The main structure is the complex Oresje structure with a N-S s...

Kato, K.; Fukuda, H., 1985: The non-GABAergic nature of 3H-baclofen binding in rat peripheral tissues. In peripheral tissues from organs such as the kidney, liver and spleen, specific binding of 3H-baclofen was most highly detected in the kidney, and that in the liver and spleen was approximately one-tenth that in the kidney. The amount of specific...

Greubler, Arnulf, 1991: Long waves, technology diffusion, and substitution. Review (Fernand Braudel Center) 14(2): 313-343

Shimuta, S.I.; Sabia, E.B.; Paiva, A.C.; Paiva, T.B., 1981: Effect of stretching on the sensitivity of the guinea pig ileum to bradykinin and on its modification by bradykinin potentiating peptides. The sensitivity of the guinea pig isolated ileum to bradykinin, but not to other agonists, was increased ca. 2-fold during the 3-4 h following mounting of the preparation under 1 g load. Concomitantly, a decrease was observed in the bradykinin pot...

Nicol, A.M., 1984: Definition and objectives of reproduction in beef cow herds. The definition of reproductive performance is discussed. It is concluded that it is not sufficient to define the reproductive performance of the herd as the number of calves weaned per cow joined with a bull, and that data on the distribution of t...

Buse, S.; Reitz, A.; Haferkamp, A.; Hohenfellner, M., 2007: Konservative Therapie der mannlichen Belastungsinkontinenz. The majority of male patients affected by stress incontinence developed this disturbance after radical prostatectomy or less frequently after TURP Urodynamic evaluation shows sphincter insufficiency in more than 90% of the patients. The conservat...